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Modern San Francisco 




AN FRANCISCO is, in population, the 
sixth city in the United States. It is 
predicted that within ten years the me- 
tropolis will supplant both Boston and 
St. Louis in the number of her inhabi- 
tants. In the value of her shipping and 
marine commerce the city is now the 
fourth seaport of importance on the 
American continent. What New York 
at present is to the East, London to Eng- 
land, and Hamburg to Germany, San Francisco will, 
in the lives of the present younger generation, be to 
all that vast section of the United States, stretching 
east and west from the Missouri River to the Pacific 
Coast line, of over 1,000 miles in length, and north and 
south, from Mexico to Canada. 

with the passing of every year. Eastern investors are 
pouring a stream of gold into San Francisco enter- 
prises, and are buying large quantities of city real es- 
tate at continuously rising prices. The field for the 
profitable investment of capital grows narrower 
abroad ; here, at home, it is widening. Profit-making 
is rapidly accomplished, and the percentage big. The 
value of real estate in the city is increasing in leaps. 
Several years ago a piece of property on Broadway 
in New York sold at the rate of $25,000 a front foot. 
New York then was accredited with a population of 
nearly 2,000,000. Several months ago similar property 
sold on Market street in San Francisco at the rate of 
$10,000 per front foot, and the city now claims but a 
half million inhabitants. The difference in price and pop- 
ulation for the same class of business property in the 


President Roosevelt has declared that within fifty 
years San Francisco will he one of the greatest cities in 
the world iii wealth, commerce and population, and 
thai it will become the metropolis of the mosl populous, 
richest and, industrially and agriculturally, the most 
prolific area of country mi die habitable globe. It is 
believed that mi this expanse of our nation's domain, 

and of which San Francisco is and will .always be the 
chief city, are to be determined and solved tin- great 
problems of religious, social and economic life, and 
that the Great West is to be the treasury of our country, 
and upon which ii must rely For strength and national 
The financial relations between the monej centers of 

the Easl and lllis cite grow closer and more numerous 

two cities indicate the relatively larger volume of busi- 
ness done in this city ami the' consequently larger real 

estate values. Fortunes are rapidly made in San Fran- 
cisco in real estate and improvements. The increase in 

values during the past three years has been general, 
extending to all quarters. In certain districts it has 
grown I" four and li\c hundred per cent, and in many 
sections from fifty to one hundred pi r cent. All the big 
office buildings recentl) constructed have been profit- 
able investmi nts, and thai stati mi nl cannot be ac- 
curately made of similar Xeu ^i oik and Chicago en- 
terprises. The demand for additional dwelling, mi 
cantile, and manufacturing buildings is now treinen- 
lou . and the extent and end of ii cannot be fori 
During a period of some seven years San Francisco 

has been rapidly forced ahead of the s ewhal doubt- 
ful position ii was statistically made to lake in the list 

of great American municipalities by a c bination of 

circumstances and of great events of national and in- 
ternational importance. The results of two greal wai 
have added to her natural resources permanent foreign 
fields for the investment and exploiting of capital to her 
advantage, and the city's magnificent harbor is di 
in become one of the greal entre-ports ol the world. 
Commerce lias fixed upon San Francisco as the tei 
minus of all of the greal nan- continental railway lines 
built and in a lurse i if o instruction. The new mines o( 
Uaska ami Nevada pa) her tribute. The prosperity 
ul" the Pacific Coast and the prodigious development 
uf Northern California pour riches into her lap Elei 
trie transit and a East ferry service unite her to the 
most picturesque and inviting suburbs on the American 
continent, and to a chain of inferior cities and towns 

sub-treasury add to the national wealth and arc 
eloquent indices of the city's prosperity. 

She is a large purveyoi to thi \i mj and \. 
the United Si air, and the homi terminal of an exten- 
sive military transport system. The great navy yard 
at Mare Maud is close at hand, and Presidio Post 
within her corporate limits. San Francisco has a pop 
ulation in excess of 500,000 persons, and within a 
radius of fifty mill - reside over a quarter of a million oi 
people mi in "r less connei ti d with and inti n sted in the 
city's welfare. Within seven years she has really 
i anied the title of metropolis, and " Modern San Fran- 
cisco" is the wealthiest, the most prosperous and pow- 
erful city of its size in the wi irld. 

The l: i "i 5an Francisco, both fn im thi point of 
utility and a scenii point of view, is one of the marine 
show places of the Western continent. Within the 
Golden Gate, northward and southward ii stretches in 


ot incomparable residential attractiveness. Her ship- 
yards add to the naval strength of oui own and foreign 
countries. Cables connect her with the Orient. Russia 
and [apan have opened their treasuries to her and 
enriched the city's merchants. ( hina buys 
breadstuffs and the output of her factories. She- 
is the mother of Honolulu, and the Hawaiian Islands, 
like dutiful children, annually add to the material wel- 
fare of their parent. San Francisco is just beginning 
a stubborn fight with New York for commercial su- 
premacy in the Philippines From the South Sea 
Islands come copra and phosphates to be lumped upon 
her wharves, and the States n f South \merica export 
innumerable bags of aromatic coffee t" her mails of 
trade. Mer postoffice receives from, and dispatches 
mail to, the four quarters of the globe, and is famous 
in postal history, The custom house, the mint and 

either direction for scores of miles, offering a safe 
anchorage to vessels from many climes. Its wa 
form the highway of a tremendous amount oi local 
shipping, and at all seasons is lively with pleasure- 
craft and ships of foreign nations. In addition to her 
water transportation facilities, San Francisco possi 
unrivaled railway Inns. The Southern Pacil 
panv is continuously expanding, adding to its system 
by increased equipment and the construction of new 
interior-State roads The Santa Fe has proved a 

genuine boon, a benefit of vast importance to local 

mercantile interests and to the traveling public, and is 
ever reaching out for new tributary fields to conquer. 
The Goulds are at present constructing the Wes 
Pacific, and have thousands of nun at work driving 
tunnels and building terminal facilities in Oakland. 
This line, when completed, will place in the possession 

of the < iould system, the only railway under one owner- 
ship and control extending from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific ( )cean. 

« hi the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay are the 
beautiful cities of Oakland, Berkeley and Alameda. 
["heir residents are, for the must part, business and 
professional men of San Francisco, whose homes are 
amour;" the most costly in the State. The travel between 
the two si.les of the bay is continuous and enormous. 

Belvedere. These handsomely improved suburbs are 
of great interest to tourists, and are connected with the 
city by independent lines of spacious ferry-boats. 

North of Berkeley, some ten miles, is the new town 
of Richmond. Here are situated the shops of the 
Santa Fe < !ompany and the great storage tanks of the 
Standard < HI Company. It is the eastern hay terminal 
of the railway, and is connected with the city by a line of 
fast ,iinl modern strain ferry-boats running from Point 
Richmond, distant from the town proper about a mile. 


transporting the residents of these cities, whose popu- 
lation exceeds 100,000, and visitors from the Easl and 
interior sections of the Slate to San Francisco, The 
boats are the fastest, and iii equipment the mosl costly, 

and al the same lime safest, in the country. I he steam 

ers connect with steam and electric railways, and pa 
sengers are carried from San Francisco to the farthest 
limits of Oakland, Alameda and Berkeley, within 
fort\ minutes. In the upper arms of the ba\ are gath 
ered the picturesque little towns ,,1' Sausalito, the honv 
oi tin- \ .u-lii clnhs and boal houses, San Rafael and 

\oiih of Point Richmond, and for mon than twenty 
miles, stretches a lim ol gt mi warehouses, lumber 
yards, and manufactories of ever) description. Mb 
discover; of oil and the tli veil ipmenl ol thai industry 
in the State has been ol extensive importance to San 
Francisco. The wells are largely controlled b) local 
capital, and tin ii output is extensive!) used b) railway 
and fern compan steam \essels, lactones, 

am! nsumers without end. Taken together 

with the cit) - facilities for supplying coal and elec 
tricit) in la . she is well prepared to invite 

the manufacturer seeking cheap fuel. 

San Francisco is grandly passing through a building 
era. In all districts, business and residential, struc- 
tures arc being built and occupied. The read, i can 
form nn adequate idea of the character of some of 
the more recently erected and prominent office build- 
ings from the excellent pictures illustrating this article. 
They reflect the spirit of enterprise and the confidence 
shown by local capitalists in the growing capacity and 
speed of the metropolis. These great buildings were 
noi planned and called into being to be idle — they have 
been devoted to practical purposes with the view of 
being, and are. profitable. The James blood building 
and the ground upon which it stands represent an 
investment of more than $5,000,000. It has no supe- 
rior in the world as a thoroughly up-to-date office 
building, and is one of the largest in America. The 
site is the most desirable in the city. The Rialto build; 
ing is a much finer and more convenient structure than 
the famous building of thai name in Chicago, and the 

accessions to the city's architectural attractions is the 
building of the Wills Fargo Express Co the Ai-n 
son building, the Mutual Savings Bank building, thi 

Majestic Theatre, the Market Street Hank and other 

bank buildings, and a huge structure just completed by 
the Pacific Hardware and Steel Company. The build- 
ings owned by the three great daily journals are im- 

■ and modem structures. A large number of 
princely homes ami apartment houses and family hotels 
of the firsl class have been made read}' for occupanc) 
during the past year or two. The principal public 
buildings are the Post < >ffice, just completed at a COS) 

of $3,000,1 ; the Citj Hall, 1 [all of Jusl i 

Station, and the Merchants' Exchange. San Francisco 
is ornamented with numerous church buildings of 
imposing architectural design, and no city in the world 
anywhere near its importance can approach it in the 
character and elegance of its hotels, restaurants and 
iheal n 5. 


From Claus Spreckels Building 

Crosslin is a notable example of the result of the work 
of a clever architect in modernizing an old and sub- 
stantial structure. The .Mills building was among the 
first metropolitan office buildings of importance to be 
erected in the city, and it still occupies an eminent 
position in the long list of local celebrities in stone and 
mortar. It compares favorably with the handsomest 
buildings of New York. The Union Trust building 
and Grocker-Woolworth National Bank building are 
types of a high order, and with the Palace and Grand 
Hotels, splendidly ornament the junction of four prom- 
inent streets. The Monadnock building, now in course 
of erection, is being built to rival the Rialto, and is the 
property of the same owner. On Mission. Folsom and 
Howard streets, in the business districts, more than a 
score of handsome and metropolitan structures have 
been erected within two years. Among other recent 

The police and tire departments rank among the best 
in the United States. Her public sch n is an 

excellent one. and the erection of additional school- 
houses is in progress. The proximity of berth the State 
and the Stanford University and the location of the 
affiliated colleges really converts San Francisco into a 
center of advanced educational advantages. In the 
matter of public utilities, the city is unusually fortu- 
nate. The street railway lines pierce all sections of the 
metropolis and suburbs, and are being annually ex- 
tended. Both the cable and electric systems are in use. 
Paris is the only city in the world rivaling San Fran- 
cisco in her love of brilliant electric illuminations. 
Nightly, the chief thoroughfares and shops are in a 
blaze of light, and the streets in consequence thronged 
with people. Gas is also largely consumed, both as an 
illuminant and as fuel. 


Shu Francisco Call Office 


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office of the San Francisco Chronicle 

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F this year were 1860 instead of 1900 this 
suggestion might have been offered as 
an aesthetical leavening in that piece of 
cold engineering known as the City of 
S.ui Francisco. 

Clear out a great circle where .Market 
Street. Van Ness Avenue and the Pan- 
handle meet. In the middle of the spaa . 
right in the part of Market Street, sel 

down the City Hall, ami. taking a rule. 

draw two more boulevards southward. The City Hall 

Would thus he the lull) of the wheel, from which radi- 
ate .Market and Castro Streets, the Panhandle, Van 

Ness Avenue and the two new boulevards. 

Passing under the triumphal areh ami peristyle 5UI 
rounding the Ferry Depot, as suggested by Architect 

Willis Polk, Noil go up .Market Street directly to the 
City Hall, looming up against the hills in the distance. 
Reaching it, you rind it surrounded by noble lawns 
strewn with fountains and statues. You see si\ wide 
Streets stretching from you to as many points of the 

i pass, each a noble boulevard shaded with trees. 

Driving on. you enter the Panhandle, and. till you 
reach the Cliff House, are visairs with everchauging 
scenes. If to this we add a boulevard around the city, 
we will have a system perhaps unrivalled in the whole 

What would be the cost of all this toda) : Per- 
haps a hundred millions, which is no more than what 
we had expended on San Francisco up to this date. 
It is simply the costliness of an ignorant beginning. 
A great municipal structure, as the visible symbol of 
the city's importance, should be the center of attrac- 
tion: and, as such, it should occupy a position from 
which wide highways radiate. We have splendid ex- 
amples in the Grand Opera House of Paris that stands 
at the head of the Avenue de 1' Opera, in the Louvre 
Palace, which occupies the beginning of the Tuileries 
< '.aniens and the Avenue of the Champs Elysees, and 
in the principle that is being applied to the designing 
of the City of Washington. As it is now, our City 
Hall is the leading mark of the landscape, is nudged 
aside and is invisible till within a few blocks, and, 
what is more disgraceful, is surrounded bv shanties. 

Realizing this defect, I had suggested before the elec- 
tion the Panhandle be given a twist somewhere 



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Meyer & O'Brien. Arehitects. 

in the hills, so that it will include a few small parks in 
its path, and, striking the City Hall, surround it. 

The idea of having a great center at the intersection 
of Market Street and Van X'ess Avenue, from which 

boulevards are to spread, is now wisely made the basis 
of the Burnham plans for the improvement of San 

It has been suggested that this center may possibly 
be the future business center of the city. This will be 
true, but only for a time. If one carefully studies the 
manner in which San Francisco has grown, he will 
note that its business quarter had always flown in the 

Street. The conclusion is that on reaching the hills 
at the end of Market Street it will once more change 
its direction and go southward, with the result that 
the vortex will be somewhere in the middle of the 
south of Mission Street. It needs but little stretch of 
imagination to predict that the whole length of Third 
Street will be lined with shy scrapers. 

Another park, much larger and more magnificent 


direction of the hills, and that, striking the font of the than the ( iolden ( '.ate Park, will undoubted!) 1"' laid 

hills, was invariably turned aside. Thus, that quarter across the neck of the peninsula, south of Petrero. 

originally spread to the foot of Telegraph Mill and ils The western addition is an illogical place for homi 

vicinity, and, turning around, went up Montgomery the rich, and will eventually he abandoned. Palatial 

and Kaerny Streets — always skirling the foot of the residences will OCCUpJ the sides ami tops of the she] 

hills. Swinging around westward as soon as it was tered hills above Castro Street, exactl) as Nob Hill is 

clear of the obstructions, it began to crawl up .Market today. 

The Greatness of San Francisco 







N account of its site and historic associa 
tions, its marvelous development and its 
pleasant life, San Francisi thai 

appi als stn mglj ti i the visitor. R< imc 
sat "ii her seven hills; so sits San Fran- 
cisco. From ever) one of these eleva- 
tions entrancing views of land and bay 
and sea ma) I"' obtained. Parks crown 
most of the hills. But recentl) a gn ai 
hotel has taken form on one ol 
eminences — Ni ib I I ill —and visitors soon will be able to 
live in constant enjoyment of a wonderful panorama 
unparalleled an) where. 


The city is located on the north end of a peninsula, 
bounded on the west 1>\ the Pacific > icean and on the 
north and cast b) the Bay of San Francisco. It is 
twenty-six miles long and six miles wide. It was 
founded in 1776 b) Spanish missionaries of thi I rat 
ciscan order, from which it takes its nana, and was 
one of the twenty-one missions extending From San 
Diego t" Sonoma, a point north of the city. The 
native Indians were instructed in the arts of peace, and 
built adobe houses and tended their flocks in the dis 
trict known as the Mission Dolores, where there was 
sunn- arable land. The rest was a waste of -and dunes, 
which lias been reclaimed b) patient labor, until now, 
as in the ( Icil den Gate 1 'ark, trees of ever) variet) grow 
in the open air. 


The climate is mild, and the temperature is as 
equable as at any point on the coast, the mean average 
being about 51 degrees Fahrenheit. The trade winds 
which blow freshly from the ocean moderate the sum- 
mer heat, and the Japanese current is responsible for 
the mildness of the winter months. 

Finck, the author of "Romantic Love and Personal 
Beauty," greatl) extols the climate of San Francisco, 
as compared to other places — even in California on 
account of the vigor it imparts and the number oi days 
in which a man ma) work in comfort, which practi- 
cally embraces the whole year. Finck contends that 
Full) one-half of human happiness is made up by the 
climate conditions under which people live, and accord- 
ing to his view. San Francisco unconsciousl) confers 
that happiness which its citizens enjo) and which the) 
do not realize until their traveling leads them into the 
intolerable heat and insufferable cold of less-favored 
lands. It is not surprising, therefore, that San Fran- 
cisco has become a favorite place for residence 

i; urn. i. Row Til 1 x POPUL vi'iox. 

From the ver) beginning of the American occupa- 
tion of California, San Francisco has been the center 
of population and commercial activities on the Pacific 
Coast, but 1849 is the magic year from which it 
its surprising growth. That year brought a sturdy im- 
migration in search of the Golden Fleece. California 

had been wrested from Mexico, and tin protection of 

the \i in law s bad been thrown ov< r the territor) ; 

it cami into the I nion a full b >■ n St iti thi following 
j ear. 

The mine- Melded their wealth of gold, which 

poured into the city, and with the development oi 
riculture and horticulture, new feeding stn 
prosperit) were openi d. Sino thi n oil and harm ssed 
mountain streams, generating cheap power, have given 
manufacturers a new field and contributed to the city's 
growth in an unexpected way. 

According to the census, the population in In">h was 

onl) 3 i. , in 1880, 23 I, ; in 1890, 299,000 . 

day, it is estimated at about 500,000. 


I he harbor of San Francisco, the city's principal 
feature, is land-locked, the ba) and it- i 
lending north and south for about fort) mile-, all. 

ing deep water anchorage for the merchant Meet- of 
the world. [| i- > ,ii, i, ,1 through the i n ( late, a 
strait at* n and one mile in widtl 
ii- narrowest point. During the last ten Mar-, the 
entrance has been fortified by the Government until its 
defenses are second to none. The Government inain- 
- a nav) yard in the harbor, and, in the city, the 
Union Iron Work- has given to the world some of its 
greatest warships, and to the nation the match 
1 iregon. and I ti wey's flagship, the < llympia. I i 
water vessels from all over the world come hither for 
wheal cargo,-. Statistics show yearl) e> 
wheal rat n three million to seventeen million 
bushels. Ibe maximum ever shipped was in 1882, 
which was an , rial year, when 22,279, cen- 
tals, valued at $36, .nun were export,.,!. Wheat has 

elded in a great measure to horticulture .and dairy- 
ing, more profitable industries. Vmong the leading in- 
dustry- of the cit) ma) be mentioned the manufacture 
of bag-, barrels and artificial stone, book-bind g 
making, beer-brewing, wine-bottling, and a big I 
ness in coffee and chocolate, confectioner', 
chemicals, crackers clothing, cordage, shipbuild 
electrical supplies, flour, fruit canning, leather, sugar 
and wire. 

Total exports of merchandise in 1904 were $53,] ).",,- 

1 Of winch about $5, were wheat and flour, 

and the total imports were over $43,410, 

The ;. product of < alifornia has been . 

SI." ,000, and the total i oinage of th< local mint, 

established in 1854, has been $1,668,135,31] G5. 

i 1 X IKK oi si VTE'S FINANCES, 

The financial interests of California cluster about 
San Francisco. I in Max 29, 1905, the cit) commen 
banks showed total resources of $109,639,851, and 
total deposits of $68,791,129, which latter figure in- 
cludes the total deposits in the seven national banks 
in San Francisco of $31,450,557. I In the same date. 
the city's savings banks -bowed total resources of 

$11 1,626,701, and the total deposits aggregated $159,- 
883,879, of which amount $154,037,401 represents 
savings deposits, and $5,846,448 individual deposits. 

San Francisco ranks all cities west of Pittsburg, ex- 
cept Chicago and St. Louis in the volume of its Clear- 
ing House returns. The clearings for the- year L904 
amounted to $1,534,631,136, a gain of almost' $15,000, 
000 i>n tlie previous year, and over $160,000,000 on 
1902. For the six months ending June 30, 1905, the 
clearings wire $855,915,000, which is a gain of over 
$128,000,000 on the same period last year. These 
figures give a fair idea of the continuous growth in the 
volume of the city's business within the last few years. 


The city is connected with the Eastern State l>v three 
through overland railroads — the Central Pacific, the 
Southern Pacific, and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa 


The civic life nt" San Francisco has always been in- 
teresting. In the early days, rough characters from 
Australia made politics turbulent, but when they cap- 
tured the city offices and courts the famous Vigilance 
Committee brought them to book. When overt acts 
were committed malefactors were given a trial by 
popular tribunal and executed in an orderly manner. 
Then there was a long reign of peace. Due to the ex- 
traordinary immigration of Chinese coolies prior to 
1879, there was another upheaval, known as Kearny- 
ism, which resulted in the adoption of a new constitu- 
tion and the passage by Congress of exclusion laws. 
which have recently been re-enacted. 

The Chinese colony in the midst of the city is dimin- 
ishing in numbers, but still continues very interesting 
to visitors. Oriental fabrics in the stores of China- 
town and the life and manners of the people trans- 


From Mark Hopkins In-ima 

Fe routes — and there is under way now the construc- 
tion of the Western Pacific, supposed to represent the 
Gould interests, connecting San Francisco with Salt 
Lake, and thence easterly b) the Denver and Rio 
i Irande ami connecting lines, which will give the city a 
fourth route. Besides these, there are traffic connec 
i ions w ith tlie Canadian Pacific, the Northern Pacific, 
anil tin' Greal Northern transcontinental roads. The 
lines of i he Soutnern Pacific, Santa Fe, California 
Northwestern and North Shore connect the city with 

the State, and there is river navigation on the Sacra 

uieiito and Sau [oaquin Rivers, which debouch into 
San I- 1 ancisi 1 1 Baj . 
The suburbs, having populations aggregating ovet 

100, I, are served by a perfect Fern system, ami in 

the citj propei there are ovet one hundred and seventy- 
five mil "i electric railway and eight) miles oi cable 
road. Tin' ealile s\stnn was invented and perfected 
here to make the hill) slopes accessible. 

ferred from the Flowery Kingdom always prove enter- 
taining. The Chinese theatre, vvliieh is without scenic 
effects, is always crowded hv an interested audience. 

USSOLU it; iiom E RULE Gl vu v \ TEED. 

Aii important civic reformation was tin- charter 
movement of seven years ago, when the political bosses 
ware routed and a new organic law for the city 
adopted, ITiis instrument went into effect in [anua 
r>i io. and is considered the most advanced chartei evei 
od in an American municipality. It was prepared 
In a Board of Freeholders, tinted b\ the citizens, sub 
milled subsequently to a vote ol th< people and ap 
proved hv the Legislature, li confers upon the M 
large responsibilities as to the appointment and n 
moval of executive boards, such as lire, police, school, 

election, health, park, public works, and eivil sen 

CO '1 1' 'MS. 

It divorces the city administration absolutely from 
the State, giving it home rule, so thai the city goes to 
the Legislature for no law. It established civil *crvio 
reform in municipal offices; it limits the rale of taxa- 
tion to $1 upon $100. It makes inviolate the funds sel 
aside for specific purposes bj requiring the Council to 
make a budget at the beginning of the fiscal year, and 
limits the expenditures in each month to one-twelfth 
of the whole amount. The local Council or Board of 
Supervisors, so-called, is made purely a legislative 
body, cutting off the power to expend the revenui il 
raises and limiting its patronage to its own attaches. 
Il gives to the people, by a unique measure, the right 
h\ the initiative and the referendum, to legislate for 

themselves if their local legislative bod) fails them. 

This has been resorted to bu1 once, when pooh 

gamblers, by petition, submitted a proposition (rejected 

of bonds for necessary public improvements, consisting 
of a drainage system, the improvement of streets, the 
creation of parks and playgrounds, the building "i 
schoolhouses and a hospital am! library 

Tin- bonds are known as serials, running for forty 
j ears as a maximum, and beai ing interest al the rate i if 
"i ' 2 pei cent. At the time this issuance of bonds was 
authorized this city, uncommon among American com 
monwealths. hail practically no bonded debt. 

Now, however, confident of the city's future, the 
people are convinced that the time has come to borrow 
money for public improvements, and to meet the pa 

incuts i ml of the certain grow ih and developmenl of the 

city. The limit of taxation refers only i" operating 

expenses, as the interest and the sinking fund, as well 

as park maintenance, are outside of the dollar limit 



by the Board) to the people as to whether they could 

ply their vocation, and it was defeated by popular vote. 
The charter has had a trial by friendly and hostile 
hand- for over five years and had proved its worth. 
In city government, men as well as measures have to he 
counted with. No government can be made autocratic 
so far as its organic law is concerned. However, the 
limits of taxation and expenditure -land, and there can 
only he an occasional unwise administration, and if 
there is wrongdoing in the administration, the blame 
can he fixed upon the responsible official. 


There is a healthy civic consciousness, which was 
well demonstrated recently when the people voted by 
ovei a two-thirds vote for the issuance of $17,000,000 

There is a project to bring an inexhaustible supply 

of pure water from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 
Congress has been asked h> grant the permission, which 
is unquestionably right and reasonable, the Govern- 
ment having included this water supply in a National 

The assessment roll of all city propert) now i 
gates $524,000,000 and the tax rate for city, count) 
and State purposes is about $1.60 on tin $100 Prop- 
erty is supposed to be assessed at about "•"> to s(l per 
cent of its full market value. 

Si nets in San Francisco are broad and well paved 
with native asphalt or bitumen, which is found in large 
quantities in California. 


There are many small parks, but the pride of San 

Francisco is the Golden Gate Park, comprising 1,013 
acres and stretching from the city to the sea, where it 
has a glorious terminus on the shores of the Pacific 

There, a long hard beach, all within the limits of the 
municipality, stretches for three or four miles and is 
used for recreation, but rarely for bathing, although on 
last Christmas day many availed themselves of the surf. 
The great enclosed baths, however, the largest of their 
kind in the world, afford ample opportunities for swim- 
ming. Here, also, is located the celebrated Cliff House, 
which looks out upon the rocks, where dwell, undis- 
turbed, seals and sea-lions, always objects of curious 
interest. They disport themselves in the sea and wage 
mimic warfare before the eyes of the beholder. The 
grat Dutch windmill, recently erected by the sea, 
pumps fresh water into the artificial lakes of the park, 
and a steam pumping plant delivers salt water into 
public baths, located in the heart of the city, and in the 
principal athletic club. 

.e Pacific-Union, the Bohemian, the University, the 
Concordia, the Verein, the Cosmos and the Olympic 
are all well known. The Bohemian Club enjoys a 
unique celebrity for its house entertainments, called 
"jinks," and its mid-summer revels in a redwood grove 
not far from the city, held during the full moon of 
August of each year. 

The Art Association maintains a school of design, 
exhibition galleries, and gives an artistic entertainment 
in the form of a bal masque at the close of the season 
every recurrng Mardi Gras night. 


Of educational institutions there are many and of 
the highest character. The University of California, 
a State institution, and the richly endowed Stanford 
University are within easy distance. In addition to 
private institutions of learning, there is a uell-equpped 
public school system, including normal and high 

Showing st Prancis Sole! 

Btiii . kittcit. 

The Presidio, or Government reservation of 1,500 
acres skirting the bay, and also open to the public, is 
practically a part of (he park system and is about tn be 
connected with tin- Golden Gate Park, for which the 
people have voted bonds. 

A beautiful race track, where for three months of 

tin \..ii there are race meetings, golf links, and tennis 
courts, is located not far from the park, and automo- 
biles have access iii must of the park drives. I >Ut-of- 
door life is thus encouraged the year round, 
soci VL LIFE. 
III.' social clubs are of an exceptional!) high class. 

scliiinls. There are also several technical sell, mis and 
schools of mechanical arts and museums. 

1:1 \i in ii'i> BY M VNY Mu\i \t i'\Ts 

( If recent years there have hern erected man) notable 
works of .mi for the adornment of public places. 
Admission Da) Monument and the Donohue Fountain, 
by Tilden; the memorial to Robert Louis Stevenson. 
» ho I. ived San I rancisco, b) I 'ipei . the Pionei i . b; 
Happerberger ; Francis Scotl Key, b) W. W. Stor) 
Starr King, b) Daniel French; Garfield, Goethe 

Schiller and other monuments adorn public places. 

denl Roosevelt, durin nt \ isit, unveiled 

tin Dewey Monument, by Aitken and riiarp, erected 
in honor of lite American Navy and the Battle ol 
Manila Bay, 

Recently a monumei Pn idenl McKinley was 

unveiled at the i ntranci to i loldi n I late Park, in the 

Fori '-'■■' fi : ' the Republic, by Aitken. 

Sculptor Tilden has almost finished his work on a 
monumenl commi mi irating the ■ ■ ' alif irnia 

Volunteer soldiers who were the "firsl to tin 
ami a monument in memorv <>i Bret Marti', wli 


liesl lame by lit s California sketches, will so m 
be finished. 

h has also been planned to commemorate in b 

of Father Junipero Scrra, the Founder of 
ni i Missii 'ii- : and, ti ipping i me of tli 
hill-, i- > the first p 

spoken in English by the chaplain of Sir I 
Drake, who i irly visited a small 1 >:i\ just outside the 
Golden Gate, which t" him was unknown. The Bav 

of Sa o A'as discoi - bj 

missionaries, directed 1 i i 1 1 n ■ r by Father Junipero Serra, 
in search of a harbor north of Monerey, which thej 
determined in advance, should they find one, to name 
for the patron of their order, St. Francis, an«l s,, they 
believed that St. Francis led them to this matchless 
on whose shores has grown a great city. 
By n - gi i igi aphical p isition, San Fran 

gets news of the world when the daj is doni 
London and Xew York. There an ten daily papers, 
including three morning and three evening dailies in 
the English language, and there are numerous othi 
representing the interests of the foreign population 
and of commerce and trade, Then first class 

theatres. The principal libraries are the Free Public 
i ibrary, which contains 120,000 volumes, and those 
of the Mechanics' Institute and the Mercantile Librar) 

Association. In the recent bond issui $1,647, was 

appropt iated 1 'ublic Library building, 

the site foi h hii h has aire idy 1" en ai quin d 


San Francisco is very cosmopolitan, and there are 
mam Irish, German, Italian. Portuguese, Spanish. 
Chinese and Ja] It is a metropolis not of the 

degree, but in the same class as the great cities 
of the world. In i xplanation of this, it must be 1" 
in mind thai the original settlement of California was 
by the picked nun of the Fast, who ha<l the com 
and tlie enterprise to cross the plains or traverse the 
ach the land of promise. They brought with 
mal pleasures and their I 
. nee. and their knowledge of 
111 ss. 
Daniel Webster, in opposing the admission of Cali- 
fornia, feared thai it never would take its laws from 
Washington, so remote did he regard it : but William 
II. Seward turned the fortunes of the day b) saying 
that it" i aliforni i admitted, she would be 

justified in setting tp an empire for herself; and I 
fornia is, indeed, an empire sufficient unto hersell 
with San Francisco as the commercial and intellectual 

\i;w \ i - i i il"EN i no. 

These are the natural advantages, which have fixed 
the p if the metrop ilis i if th< \\ i st, By i 

res, without am fori ess, San Franci 

has developed like a giant tree and now throws out 
its sheltering branches in every direction, bringing 
within it- influences the mining, agricultural and in- 
dustrial interests of the State. The opening of the 
Pacific and the expansion of commerce, the construc- 
tion of new railroads, and the new certain opening of 
the Panama ( anal can nol but add enormously to the 

d hence, to the population, of this pecr- 
citv by the I iolden I late. 

New lines of steamers have been added to the ocean 
service, and the Government transport service, beg 
ning with the Spanish War and continuing to this 
time, has given a stimulus to local trade. Commerce 
has crowded the harbor, a generous yield of cereals 
and fruits and the opening and developing of mines 
have helped the city's trade, and petroleum oil, giving 
the city for the first time a cheap fuel, has greatl) 
.tin mufactures. The State of California lias 

a pride in its chief city, which has made such mar- 
velous Strides, and has hearkened to the advise of the 
orator, who -aid mam years ago, when laying the 
cornerstone of the municipal buildings: 

ai, people of California, cherish San Francisco ! 
She is not only one of thy jewels: sin is the very 
crown of i 1 


lUlllil i 1 1 i l 


Cor. PoFl & Ml 


t_n 1904 Daniel II. Burnham was invited l>\ the As- 
sociation for the [mprovement and Adornment of Sun 
Francisco to prepare a comprehensive plan for the 
city's betterment. He accepted the commission, vol 
unteering his services as a labor of love, the Associa- 
tion providing him with even facility and experl as 
sistants, and the Board of Supervisnrs agreeing I" 
publish and illustrate his report as an official docu 
merit, In 1856, Frederick Law Olmsted prepared a 
plain for a park system for the city, but his recom 
mendations unv nol followed Mr did consider 

utgonu iv Sts. 

the soil fit for the growth of trees and plant-, bul bj 
artificial fertilization, the Golden Gate Park, after- 
wards laid out, became a garden spot and dissipated 
In- fears. 

Mr. Burnham and Mr. Charles F. McKim consider 
the site of San Francisco unparalelled and the possi- 
bilities of the place unequaled, and the Burnham plan 
will mean the infusion of much new life, ami it i> 
believed that the people "i San I i will en- 

thusiastically set about the task of building the new 
itj under such leadership on correct and artistic lines 
of beauty and uti!it\ 



S/ira ,5- SAta, Artkittctt. 

: JLtk 

'' Ft ■ 



Li '■ 


1 i^^^H 



Market Stic 

Win Cwlet! Architect 



EMERSON BUILDING. Af—u* & BMu, Arckittcti 


■ iiiritiiii 




i gi ei ii ei ii 
i iE ii n iiii 




OmnkCH. Bttm&mm, ./■.';</«./ 

^_ A f if J ■ K "M 


1 £!ift:ii 

Ijiin;:." 1 ^ 



1 1 





Nathaniel RlaistifU, At 





.yftllcufall Bm„ Arcfiilec't. 

J JO Pitte St.. Acinic my />Mf 
C. E. McUcufall 
G K McDwfall 
B. G. McDe*c*ll 

S. E. Cor. Bush and Leavenworth Streets. 

Bliss & FariHc and John C. Pill<m, 
Associated Architects 




Moostr &• gollis, A,, tiittcts 





■ ***L1 







E have always been accustomed to think- 
ing of the future San Francisco in the 
abstract, as a city of a certain number 
of inhabitants or of a certain amount of 

Recently, however, the set of plans 
prepared by Mr. Burnham, for the As- 
sociation for the Improvement of San 
Francisco has been presented to the pub- 
lic, and, as a result, we are beginning to 
think not only of the size of our future city and of its 
possible resources, but also of its actual appearance. 

A tangible city of new buildings, new parks and 
streets is beginning to grow familiar, and this vision 

will grow clearer and clearer in years to come till at 
last it will become a reality. 

It is already a beautiful city. Let us make it the 
most beautiful city. 

A city is more than a collection of fine buildings. 
It is even more than a series of fine streets. It is a 
complete organism, any one part of which can only be 
considered in relation to the whole. 

So, while it is the duty of the architect to see that 
the unit, the building, is properly and artistically 
treated, it is the still more important duty of every 
citizen to see that the city in its entirety be so devel- 
oped and improved that our San Francisco shall be 
perfect, the most beautiful city in the world. 


Kti.i .'••■■■ 



Wm. If. Arntitafr, Architect. 


MaAotUf Bros., Cmntracton. 

* r-i rf r^^i rrnn 


r n r 




It'. //. At 

Architects . 

^^^Ky '■ 


-. ■-,?>.- ■, 

■ 1 " 

_ «... MM. *. 

— i ^' ! — -fc~s» 


_ _-_ ... — 

^^HkHp! ~ ~ — " 

fcr d- 






D, Franklin Other. A 








Cast !>v Globe Brass and Bell Foundry 

II, .,„■,„ ArcMillcl 


Main Exchange, Bush Street 

Main Office, New Montgomery Street 

ji. A. Cantitt. Arrliitttt 



Urn. Curlett, ArckUett 


r in. CurUtt, Architect 





HE American mechanic by the grace of his 

T brawn and brains is the most effective 

and accomplished in the world. If he 
is not always the parent of invention he 
is its foster-parent, maturing the genius 
of the investigator, by transforming his 
theories into mechanical utilities. For- 
merly the builders of the United States 
inported skilled labor in large numbers. 
This custom was abandoned for two rta- 
s,.ns -first, because it was legally restricted, and again 
because the imported article was discovered inferior 
to the native product. American contractors building 
in England and Europe take over with them American- 
born mechanics to perform the more difficult, intricate 
and important parts of their work. 

chines on the Pacific ( oast. Mr. Burger has equipped 

nearly all of the prominent office and warehouse build- 
ings recently erected in San Francisco with the ( )tis 
elevator. The magnificent lifts now being operated in 
the lames L. Flood Jr.Building were constructed bv Mr 
Burger's company, and are eloquent exemplars of the 
handicraft of the Otis Company's mechanics. 

Mr. Burger, wuo is not only an affable business 
man of importance, but an unusually courteous one. in 
reply to an inquiry was kind enough to say: "The af- 
fairs of both the business and the social world would 
be seriously retarded and otherwise obstructed by even 
a day's cessation of the elevator service. It is of the 
greatest importance to the public and is utilized in 
innumerable ways. Not only is life and freight safe- 
guarded by the law and insurance inspection, but re- 
putable makers of elevators endeavor to embrace in the 



limit i-v lAl i Hit I 

The litis Elevator Company has upon its pay rolls 
the names of some of the most accomplished me- 
chanics in the United States. These artisans represent 

the highest grade Of American machinists, smiths and 

carpenters, and the material they shape for commercial 
usage is the best sold by the mills of this country. 
When an (His elevator is made and put in running 

order by the c pan) il is a perfect piece <>i mechan- 
ism, perfectly and safely, adjusted t" us purpose. The 
elevators are equipped with the mosl improved appli 

anecs for rapid and safe transit, and are so durably 

and solidly constructed they are practically indestrucl 

ible by means other than tire. Samuel Burger, the 

local manager of the- (itis Elevator Company, has 
been largelj instrumental in popularizing the ma- 

so-called advantages "i their products every possible 
invention increasing safety. The i 'tis elevator is es 
pedal ly constructed for safety, speed and durability. 
At present we are engaged in equipping a numbei oi 
modern San Francisco buildings with the Otis, 
"The i itis." continued Mr. Burger, "is probably the 

best known elevator in use on the Coast, and we are 
kept busy. I assure you. in tilling our Contracts." 

Mr. Burger is. of course, exceptionally \\ ill in- 
formed as in the building operations in progress and 
contemplated. He speaks with enthusiasm of the new 
S.ui Francisco and its future. These .Inn ml (dews 
were always held and warmly endorsed by the late 
President Otis, who was an indefatigable worker in 
the l» si interests of the metropolis. 





Jmg , 

S * 

IP ; ; 

?^:-®H^<^3&*. , ! toil! 


Mcc/str &> fiettrs, Architects 

Libraries in San Francisco 


The establishment of public libraries in a community 
is indicative of a standard of culture that in general 
is reached only after a long period of settled life. And 
it is one of the most remarkable testimonies to the 
character of the California pioneers that within less 
than a decade of the American possession libraries had 
been established in all of the cities of any importance. 
Nor has the activity in this regard in any degree fallen 
behind the rapid progress of the State. In no part of 
the United States are there greater collections of books 

of the general reader but for the assistance of scholars 
and investigators. Particularly during the last ten 
years the Public Library of San Francisco has 
achieved a notable success in supplying the general 
need of books in the city. It has accumulated a great 
library of approximately 150,000 volumes and has 
followed the best traditions of American libraries in 
making its resources available through the instrumen- 
tality of branch libraries and delivery stations. So 
effective have these agencies been that public spirited 

h till. Robert Aitht, 


Ca*t fy ( 

iii proportion to the population than are to be found 
around San Francisco Bay. And the growth of libra- 
ries in the State at large has been fullv commensurate 
with the increase of wealth. The State librar) at 
Sacramento is large and well equipped, and the group 
"i cities around Los Angeles ran show public libraries 
which might be taken as models of what such insti- 
tutions should be. 

But while smaller cities are well served in bavin.; 

adequate libraries of a popular character, the principal 
city in tin' Slate musl be judged by the collection of 
honks that ii provides not alone for ihe entertainment 

citizens like James 1). Phelan and Andrew McCreerj 
have been attracted b) the value of the work done to 
provide branch library buildings. The steps are now 
well advanced for the election of a main library that 

will rank with the most notable buildings of its kind 
in the country. 

But San Francisco is far from being dependent 
upon iis Public Librar) alone. In the early fifties were 
established the Mercantile Librar) and the Mechanics' 

Institute Library, rinse institutions, supported not 
b) municipal taxation like the Public Librarj but bj 
subscriptions, have during the half centurj of their 

Libraries in San Francisco (Continued) 

existence grown to the extent of about 100,000 vol- 
umes each. 

The polio of the Mercantile Librarj led to its 
special development in the departments of belles 
lettrees, valuable editions of the classical writers in 
all languages, and m itable v, i irks i m the line arts I hi 
polio of the Mechanics' Instituti made conspicuous 

its collection of works on technology and c merce, 

with numerous sets of periodicals in these branches. 
At the present moment the members of these two 
libraries have just decided to combine them into one 
with the result that the "Mechanics-Mercantile" is 

I he last two names are almost as prominently iden- 
tified with the University of California as with the 
Mechanics' institute. Mr. Hallidie gave to the Uni- 
versity Librarj a notable colleen f books and Mr. 

Taussig advocated with success the acquisition of the 
Bancroft Librarj for the University. This remarl 

Ilection of material relating exclusively to thi 

liiston of the Pacific Coast of America was purchased 
from Mr. II. II. Bancroft on the 25th of November 
1905, In President Benjamin [de Wheeler. Thi 
eral librar) of the University of California has devel- 
oped steadily in accordance with the growth of th( 


entitled to rank as one of the larger libraries of the 
1 nited States, ["he Mechanics' Institute, apart from 
the revenue derived from the subscriptions of its mem- 
bers, is endowed to the extent of a million and a half 
ol dollars. This endowment has been secured not b\ 
gift but by the exertions of successive Hoards of 
Trustees in holding annually industrial Fairs for the 
benefit of the Institute. Among' the more notable of 
the Presidents of the Mechanics' Institute who hav< 
devoted time and attention to its welfare, the name- 
of P. B. Cornwall. A. S. Hallidie and Rudolph I. 
Taussig- an i 1 mspicuous. 

University". At Stanford University the funds avail- 
able for the purchase of books have recently been 
greatly increased by the Jewel Fund left for this pur- 
pose by Mrs. Stanford. The libraries of the two 
universities will compare favorabh with those ><i older 
institutions, especial!) when the new building-, for 
which in each case provision has been made, are com- 
pleted. And when, as is shortly to be expected, the 
great Sutro Library in San Francisco, also essentially 
a scholar's library, is made available, the equipment 
of books in California will rival that of almost any 
cit\ in the ci luntrv. 


JAMES LICK MEMORIAL. C*rf h Glctt *™» «»<* Ball Fvmd,*,. 


/' /'a/cum /loss. Architect. 



TK- ■>*? 


Sank: I 

1 A- L > 


- \ilKl9. 

Htnmtiam Water far ;§>an iFranrtBro 

SAX FRANCISCO has outgrown its exist- 
ing water supply. The marvelous ad- 
vance of the city in population, its in- 
crease in manufactures and commerce 
have developed a demand for water of the 
very highest quality, practically free from 
minerals, and wholly free from bacteria 
and organic matter. There is only one 
si mice in the State from which such 
water can be obtained, a source that, hap- 
pily, is readily accessible to San Francisco. This is 
the lakes ami streams of the high Sierra Nevada 

i if which reveals high percentages of lime and the 
presence of a "marshy odor," as indicated by the citv 
chemist's analysis of the waters now being supplied. 
Furthermore, (be Sierra watersheds are either of bare, 
glaciated rock, uninhabitable and for the most part 
inaccessible, or they are heavily wooded areas overlaid 
wiili carpels of pine needles through which the water 
filters and comes forth in springs and streams, the 
most beautiful and crystalline imaginable. These 
watersheds are in striking contrast to those of the pop- 
ulated lands and heavily-stocked cattle ranges about 
tbe bay from which the supply of San Francisco is 
drawn, through the present primitive water system 


Sierra Nevada water is the purest that exists. It 
comes from tbe snows and rains falling upon clean, 
uninhabited areas, hence has not the objectionable 
qualities of water pumped from tbe ground or im- 
pounded from the runoff from lands that are thickly 
inhabited. In other words, it is soft, aerated and pure. 
as contradistinguished from water heavily mineralized 
and charged with the detritus of civilization, tbe test 

conceived when the cit\ was young and its greatness 
undreamed of. and piecemeal extended to include more 
of the local drainage. 

Aside from considerations of purity and softness, 
the city demands added quantities of water. Tl 
appears, cannot be procured from tbe local watersheds. 
the yield of which is about exhausted, while the supply 
and consumption of the city are now equal to each 

other, no reserve being on hand against breakage or 
excessively dry years, except a little in the local reser- 
voirs, which a single large fire might exhaust. The 
water consumption of the city is increasing at a rate 
of 6,000 gallons daily, or 2,000,000 gallons per 
year, and the meeting of this demand is a serious prob- 
lem ; and when it is borne in mind that the population 
of the entire bay region is increasing as rapidly as is 
that of San Francisco, and that all are getting their 
water from the same local sources, it becomes evident 

mountable. The next attempt is about to be made, and 
its success seems already assured. 

This failure only served to stimulate further in- 
vestigations and effort, and in that part of the Sierra 
range within reaching distance of the city has been 
found a water source much superior to the one which 
had to be abandoned, and it has been offered the city 
for sale. This source lies in the counties of Amador, 
El Dorado and Alpine. It comprises a catchment 
area of over 400 square miles, including about fifty 


that soomr or later, and not much later, must more 
distant and better sources he availed of. 

The city has long realized the necessity of intro- 
ducing water from some watershed far removed from 
local influences, and the people' with practical unanim- 
ity favor water from a Sierra source. One attempt 
has been made to secure water from the mountain 
districts, but the stream from which it was designed 
to lie taken is in the Ybsemite National Park, ami (lie 
objections of the Ivdcral authorities proved insur- 

natural lakes, and many perennial streams, among 
which are the South Fork of the American and the 
North Fork of the Cosumnes Rivers. 

The watersheds ale located in the highest regions of 

the Sierras, ami present all the characteristic Sierran 
aspects. The upper parts extend to the verj summit 

of the range, the line of divide, where the waters begin 

to fall to the eastern side and pass awaj through the 

interior. In this region the granite peaks of Pyramid 
and Mount Talkie lift their snOM el. el forms ten thou- 

sand feet iii the cold pure atmosphere, and overlook a 
great arrangemenl of lakes lying in basins of clean 
bare rock. About every lake of importance in the cen- 
tral part of the range is included except Lake Tahoe, 
which lies "ii tl"' eastern slope. Among these are 
Echo Lakes, the lakes of Desolation \ allej . Silver and 
Twin Lakes. 'These are natural reservoirs, holding 
waters — the purest that exist, soft water that is prac- 
tically melted snow, one drink of which brings one 
instantl) to realize how vastly inferior is that with 
which San Francisco is at present supplied. 

In addition to its many natural reservoirs, several 

large artificial ones can he easily and cheapl) created 

ill this region through the erection of dams across one 
or more of the numerous gorges that are so striking 
as to constitute natural marvels. That in the canyon 
of the Cosumnes, for instance, through which all of 
the waters of the American and the Cosumnes can he 
passed, is one of the wonders of the Sierras — a nar- 
row cleft between two mountains, with sheer granite 
walls rising on either side for hundreds of feet, lie- 
hind these damsites there are great valleys or arenas 
surrounded 1>\ high mountains forming ideal basins 
in which to store vast quantities of water for use' as 

I Iver this region is extended the patrol of the For- 
i st Reserve rangers of the Federal Government, who 
necessarily protect the watersheds and streams from 
vandalism and pollution, while defending the forests 
against tire and the encroachment of settlers. 

The annual precipitation averages about sixty inches 
over the entire area, much of which takes the form 

of snow and lies perennially on the higher mountain 
peaks. This produces an enormous runoff, which, 
wire it all conserved, would supply a city of many 
millions of inhabitants. With the American-Cosumnes 
properties. San Francisco, almost alone among the 

uiies of the world, would have its water qui 
settled for centuries. It would have the best and 
purest water possible and in unlimited abundance. The 
works being municipall) owned, the water would be 
conserved, transported and distributed at cost, and the 
entire system would comprise the greatest asset the 
city could ever possess. 

["here is no question hut that the people of San 
i rancisco favor municipal ownership of water, and in 
view of the fact that nearl} all large cities of the 
United States have their water owned and distributed 
In the people, it is anomalous that the metropolis of 
the Pacific should be so tar behind thi times as to 
continue to take its water from private ownership. 
The people of San Francisco realize that municipal 

water is water furnished at cost, while private company 
water is furnished for cost pins profit. Also, they are 
appreciative of the fact that the Ainein in-i osumnes 

water can be brought by the municipality I 
Francisco and distributed to the consumers at less 
rates than they are now paying, even including in 
those rates the annual investment of purchase money; 
that the rates would decrease from year to year, and 
that at the end of a few years would he hut abot I 20 
per cent, i if w hat the) are now . 

A comparison of the various projects to furnish the 

cit) with a municipal supply, which have been ad- 
vanced from time to time, shows not only that the 
American-Cosumnes is better and cheaper than any- 
thing to which attention has been directed, but that 
the cost would be upwards of ten million dollars less 
than the sum upon which the people are now paying 
interest in the way of water rates to a private corpora 
tion which has. but probably for a brief period only. 
a monopoly of the water business in the city beside 
the ( iolden I .ate. 




Calvin E. Knickerbocker 
H . B. Bostwck 





A general desire on the part of citizens to become 
home-owners was originally the incentive to organize, 
what is commonly known as "building and loan asso- 
ciations," the original intention of which was most 
worthy, and very beneficial. This purpose, however, 
brought another class of people into the business of 
running "building and loan associations," the latter 
being not a combination of home-seekers with a desire 
to assist each other in securing homes in an economical 
manner, but ventures organized purely from the stand- 
point of gain. 

than the average merchant or tradesman can make 
upon his capital, or to a much greater advantage than 
the salaried man can use his money by depositing it in 
a savings bank or elsewhere. 

The acme of perfection in a home-building company 
is only attained by one that will undertake the entire 
business of supplying home-seekers with complete 
homes, by buying up large, conveniently located tracts 
of land, and placing upon them the restrictions neces- 
sary to prevent grog-shops and other objectionable 
features from invading them ; by restricting also the 


From the Ray 

In the name of "building and loan associations" 
( which is now a misnomer, none of them being actual 
home-builders, but simply lenders of money at ex- 
orbitant rates of interest to home-buyers), they have 
imposed hardships upon those who have become their 
clients from a desire to own a home. This has made 
a gnat many people afraid of any kind of an install- 
ment proposition as regards home-building. However, 
when an equitable, just system of installment payments 

is followed out, it is by far the best principle on which 

to purchase a home, inasmuch as the money maj !»■ 

loaned upon the home at a low rale of interest; less 

class of buildings, and naming the distance that they 
should be set back from tin- street, and the actual 
amount of laud that there should be between each 
building, and liualh b) the construction of the home, 
to accomplish which the present COmpan) purchases 
all material in wholesale quantities, pel forms the 
architectural work, attends to the neeessarv examina- 
tion of the title-, furnishes the money, and in facl doe- 
everything necessary to produce a home under one 
management and at the least possible est to the home- 

Si it It *^ 

11 i- 17 fr fr i; 

rr iff r? 

Htmen-way ^ Miller, Architects 


Tfra co't.i, prtS'fri brick , etc., ly 

■'■■' c.McBean&rCo. 



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Frank .V. /',i« 'I'rttt, Afxhilt<t 

N a recent dispatch to a San Francisco 
daily newspaper wired from Seattle by 
the Western Associated Press, E. L. C. 
( ass, vice-president of the Chicago & 
Great Western Railway, is quoted as fol- 
low s : 

"All the trunk lines are reaching out 
toward the Pacific Coast, and it is only 
a question of time when the principal 
systems of the country will have Pacific 
Coast terminals." 

It is true that all of the powerful railway barons of 
America and thousands of investors in railway bonds 
and stocks in England and Europe have their eyes 
fixed on San Francisco. The transportation field to 
which the metropolis is tributary affords abundant 
opportunity to the railway builder, and is rapidly being 
covered by a network of trunk and dependent lines. 
The importance of San Francisco as the Western 
terminal of the most extensive railway systems of the 
country and as a feeder to the passenger and freight 
traffic of many other lines is not generally and compre- 
hensively understood. The transportation interests of 
the city affect the business of nearly every line in the 
East and West, the South and the Northwest. 
All of the big trunk lines are represented in San Fran- 
cisco, and among their agents are a number of the 
shrewdest railway men in the country. The fight for 
business is a continuous and fierce one, and the city is 
beginning to realize the benefits flowing to it from 
competitive railway rate wars. It should be borne in 
mind that with the extension of the railway facilities 
of the entire West, irrespective of section, the position 
of San Francisco as a transportation center is expand- 
ed. It has been truly said that no railway venture 
west of the Missouri River can be successfully man- 
aged without contributing to the prosperity of the 
roads of which 1 1 1 i -- city is the real terminal. The posi- 
tion of San Francisco on the seaboard and her estab- 
lished marine commerce give the city an overwhelm- 
ingly pre-eminent advantage in western railway af- 

The Southern Pacific and Santa Fe systems, with 
their thousands of miles of leased lines, have, during 
the past year, notwithstanding continuous additional 
equipment, been forced to the greatest effort to handle 
traffic with prompt dispatch. The railway transporta- 
tion business of San Francisco during that period in- 
creased over 20 per cent., and these two principal sys- 
tems controlled the larger part of it. Shipments from 

the city to the interior West have been unprecedented- 
ly large and the branch roads of the main lines have 
reported a most satisfactory record of increased busi- 
ness. New lines are being built by both systems in 
nearly ever) section of the State, opening up timber, 
mining and agricultural lands, and this is practically 
true of the Northern part of California, in wdiich are 
situated the almost inexhaustible timber lands of the 

San Francisco now has railway lines along both 
shores surrounding her magnificent and prolific bav, 
and a coast road, in addition to the main line, to Los 
Angeles and the South. The mining valleys and hills 
of the Sierras are being pierced by new tap and branch 
lines, mountain grades are being lowered, and tunnels 
ami viaducts constructed to facilitate and cheapen 
traffic and travel. All of the transportation means of 
the State are likewise the transportation resources of 
San Francisco, owing to the intimate connection be- 
tween the interests of both. Not only have the old 
lines been extended, hut San Francisco is soon to have 
a brand new transcontinental line — the Western Pa- 
cific — a line reaching from ocean to ocean and owned 
and controlled alone by one system — the Gould. This 
line is now being rapidly constructed from Salt Lake, 
I "tab, west, and from San Francisco east. It will 
traverse a country rich in many forms of natural 
wealth, and will wonderfully stimulate and increase 
the trade of its western terminal. It will go far in de- 
veloping a section of Northern California immediately 
contiguous to this city and will doubtless prove one of 
its most profitable resources. When it has been fully 
called into being and in active operation the direct re- 
sults accruing to the commercial efforts of the metrop- 
olis can then be accurately measured and correspond- 
ingly appreciated. 

In the article on shipping, elsewhere printed in this 
volume, reference has been made to the land side of 
San Francisco's water front. This busy scene of local 
activities photographically pictures the real greatness 
of the city. On the land side of the bay are the ter- 
mini of the transcontinental and interior railway lines 
and the city's immense union station. The street rail- 
way lines center there and connect further on with the 
inter-urban electric service. At the southern end of 
the water front many acres of tide lands have been 
reclaimed by a system of seawalls and other engineer- 
ing devices, and on these properties are to be erected 
and are in course of erection the terminal facilities of 
the Santa Fe, the Southern Pacific, the Western 

Pacific and the Ocean Shore railways. At the north- 
ern end of the water front are the freight terminals 
of the California Northwestern and North Shore rail- 
ways. The "front" is here traversed by the Belt rail- 
way for both standard and narrow-ganged cars, with 
spur tracks running to the shipping yards of the com- 
mercial industries in that immediate section of the city. 
The same shipping facilities are offered the patrons 
of the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific at the south end 
of the water front. It is proposed to tunnel the land 
side of the bay at its intersection with several of the 
city's busy streets at and on either side of Market 
Street. This will permit the Belt railway to traverse 
the entire water front and really belt the city with an 
urban freight road of the largest use and convenience. 
The Belt railway is the direct outcome of an imperative 
demand for extended methods of urban freight traffic, 
and is a striking evidence of the city's growing pros- 

Some fifteen years ago the city had but one trans- 
continental line and one independent interior line of 
comparatively small importance. During this period 
of transportation development the city has acquired 
two additional transcontinental lines and five State 
railways, and these in addition to the many local 
branches of the trunk or main companies which have 
almost altogether been constructed within the past ten 
years. The local passenger traffic over these railways is 
remarkably heavy, more than 100,000 persons on an 
average being hauled by them to San Francisco daily. 
The equipment of all of these companies is modern 
and the struggle for business assures their patrons a 
service as nearly perfect as human ingenuity can de- 

The railway transportation lines of San Francisco 
have been indefatigable in their efforts to increase the 
material welfare of the city. For the most part, they 

are directed by men of enormous private fortunes, 
whose investments in the State and its metropolis 
amount to almost fabulous sums. They are on the 
directories of many boards of local corporations and 
are connected with all manner of financial and com- 
mercial enterprises. The railway companies ever dis- 
play the greatest energy and intelligence in what has 
come to be known as "promotion work." and have ad- 
vertised the city all over the world. They are largel) 
responsible for the increase in the population of San 
Francisco and for converting it into a city of conven- 
tions and other numerous gatherings, as well as for 
encouraging its manufacturing and other commercial 
activities. All of the home trunk lines are intimatch 
joined to ocean, bay and river shipping, and are large 
tenants of wharf privileges, and extensive owners of 
marine craft, including passenger and freight traffic. 

The wealth of the transcontinental lines of San 
Francisco can, of course, be only widely estimated. 
Their gross and net earnings and the value of their 
dividends are matters of every day report in the finan- 
cial publications of the country. It can be said that no 
city in America is being served by transportation com- 
panies more liberal, far-seeing, powerful or progres- 
sive. Most of them, like the Central Pacific and the 
Santa Fe, have been the builders of States and Terri- 
tories, have transformed hundreds of hamlets into hun- 
dreds of cities and made the deserts of the arid waste 
to fructify into beauty and utility. What may be prop- 
erly termed the State railway lines are almost annually 
increased in number. They are all directed from San 
Francisco and are feeders to her prosperity. Everj 
section of Northern California is being opened by them 
to the great advantage of the coal, oil, timber, horti- 
cultural, grain and agricultural trade of the city and to 
the enrichment of its metropolitan retail establishments. 






FOLLOWING this caption will be found 
brief and tersely written biographies of 
the men who have taken a forceful part 
in the making of Modern San Francisco. 
These sketchy word-pictures are modest 
tributes to the worth, the enterprises, the 
liberality and genius of the builders of a 
great city. They are personal histories 
in the miniature and are intensely inter- 
esting, since they shed a flood of pene- 
trating nght upon the ambitions, qualifications and 
deeds of a notable group of men. 

One of the most conspicuous qualifications of a 
majority of the following characters is their acceptance 
of the wisdom of the biblical injunction to unite works 
with faith — to perpetuate deeds in some reasonable 
proportion to one's thinking about doing something. 
All of the men whose lives are herein portrayed have 
done something, and will leave behind them some kind 
of creditable monumental work. It should be gen- 
erally thought, and doubtless is by appreciative per- 
sons, an enviable distinction to be justly and reason- 
ably considered one of San Francisco's great men. It 
is an honor to which few men attain, but for which 
many strive. The field of the battling for this guerdon 
is practically without bounds, and the lists arc open to 

The reader will not fail of perceiving the cheerful 
optimism, the blooming and encouraging sclf-satisfac- 
tion that pervades and makes singularly instructive 
and, hence, beneficial, these tiny biographies. Appar- 
ently the "men of to-day" have not only wrought and 
builded with their hearts in their endeavor, but they are 
united in a purpose "to keep it up." They are satis- 
lied and justified. Results of their labor deepen and 
Strengthen their belief in the glorious destiny awaiting 
San Francisco. 
fine will discover a deal of information in perusing 

die written lives of these men. Mere are set down the 

records of brilliant personal achievement, the gratify- 
ing consummation of gigantic financial ventures and 
commercial enterprises and stories of men who, by 
winning professional prominence, are considered pre- 
eminent by their fellows. All of these citizens will 
leave behind them fruitful examples for posterity and 
practical demonstrations of the value of good citizen- 
ship to civic communities and the world at large. 

"The men of to-day" have worked along many 
lines running in many directions. Some of them are 
gieat merchants whose ships carry the products of the 
fields of California and the wares of San Francisco's 
factories to the ports of the awakened Orient. Others 
are influential capitalists interested in banks, mines, 
railroads, and manufacture. Some are men who are 
investing of their resources in great buildings, and 
other material city improvements, while others are 
busily occupied in promoting private and corporate en- 
terprises. The concentrated power of all of these 
forces can bring about tremendous results, and this 
is what is being done by the men of to-day. There is 
no mistake in the statement that a common purpose is 
actively abroad to promote the welfare of this city, for 
never since it had its beginning has San Francisco 
faced such a plan and a promise of expansion as con- 
fronts it at present. 

In Washington, in the Hall of Fame, the acts of 
Congress place marble tablets commemorating the 
deeds of distinguished citizens who. in life, greatly 
served this country. "The men of to-day" who are 
ver\ plainl} alive, are having no difficulty in seeing the 
evidences of their greatness, past, present and future. 
With a proper respect to what posterit) may think of 
diem, the "men of to-day" are busily engaged in win- 
ning the approbation oi the living ami in wresting suc- 
cess from the hands of failure and fierce competition. 
Out of this conflict is continuously reappearing a new 

San Francisco and brilliant recruits to "the men ol 


HO, of all the truly great men, prominent 
in the financial and commercial history of 
the State, should occupy the (oremi ist place? 
This question put to a popular vote in Cali- 
fornia would result in tin- universal answer — 
Claus Spreckels. 

Mr. Spreckels hastened the advano ol 
civilization in the Hawaiian Islands. More 
than any other man he developed the natural resouri es ol 
that country, and was unquestionably indirei tlj responsible 
for its annexation to the diked States. The Islands, u ith- 
out the sugar plantations, marine and other interests 
of .Mr. Spreckels. might have languished until the 

thousands of farmers, land-owners, merchants and 

In San Francisco the evidence of Clans Spreckels' 
wealth and enterprise is visible on every hand. Ill 
made- cheap g i~ in 'i only possible, but a fact. He pro- 
moted ami generalized the practical application of 

electricity as a tive and illuminating power. (In 

the most useful and valuable corner in the city he 
erected the most beautiful and widest-known city office 
building in the world — the "Spreckels Building." 
Wnli the completion of thai unique structure began 
San Francisco's real era of metropolitan office build- 
ing, lie presented the city with the magnificent 
music stand in Golden Gate Park, and has ornamented 




present era of general enterprise, had he not quickly 
demonstrated their commercial possibilities. 

Mr. Spreckels practically constructed the "Valley 
Road" — the San Joaquin Valley Railroad — and 
through it. San Francisco, after the longest and fiercest 
struggle in the history of railway wars and railway 
monopolies, secured a competing trans-continental line 
to the Atlantic. Nearly every great financial, shipping, 
commercial and industrial enterprise in the State has 
absorbed more or less of Mr. Spreckels' time and 
money. He gave to the State its tremendously valu- 
able sugar-beet and sugar manufacturing interests. 
These great industries are the sources of profit to 

both the business and residential districts with impos- 
ing structures. 

Mr. Spreckels is one among the financial magnates 
of the times. In New York his vast fortune and ex- 
tensive interests would associate him financially with 
such men as Rockefeller, Carnegie. Morgan. SchifF, 
Phipps. and the Goulds, lie is possessed of an inven- 
tive as well as an executive mind, and forms his mental 
conclusions with astonishing rapidity. Transactions in- 
volving millions are acted upon apparently without a 
moment's consideration, and yet Mr. Spreckels is 
known as an essentially successful man who has rarely 
made a mistake. He is California's biggest man. 

AMES D. PHELAN is a brilliant product 
of his native State. He occupies a con- 
spicuous position in the affairs of his city. 
The very highest gifts at the bestowal of his 
fellow citizens have been conferred upon him 
in the past, and before him is doubtless, if 
he prefers it, further preferment. As mayor 
of San Francisco, he was honorable, just and capable and 


blocks of city property and when he improves any of 
it the structures are ever durable, costly and orna- 
mental. In San Jose and other cities he operates along 
the same lines. 

.Mr. Phelan was the chief and most influential spirit 
behind the original plan to beautify San Francisco on 
an extensive scale, and was among the first of its 
notable citizens to foresee its present era of unusual 





Photo liy Tater. 

wim a national reputation for efficiency in that office, He 
has an immense private fortune that is grow ing larger each 
year, and he may in reason be called the young Astor 
of the \\ estern metropi ilis. 

Mr. Phelan is one of the largest taxpayers in the 
city and Slate. Mis holdings .if improved properties 
alone are enormous, The Phelan Building anil the 
building of the Mutual Savings Bank, i'f which lie i^ 
president, are magnificent properties on Market street 

anil the source i.f princely revenues. Mr. Phelan owns 

prosperity, lie enjoys the confidence of investors 
abroad, and not onlj has largelj purchased citj securi- 
ties, but has been of inestimable service to San Fran- 
cisco in placing certain bond issues aw.u from home. 
Mr. Phelan is a gentleman of travel and wide cul- 
ture. He is a liberal patron of the arts and to a di 
little Known save to those who are the beneficiaries of 
his generosit) and esthetic tastes. He has presented 
San Francisco with several art objects of much interest 
and value. 


t'iii>ta by Tabtr. 

No volume purporting to be a reflection of the 
materia! prosperit) of San Francisco would in anywise 
be complete without most prominent mention of I lam 
E. Huntington. Yet, so extensive arc. and have been, 
Mr. Huntington's interests that anything like a men- 
tion of them in detail is quite out of the question. 
I lis name is associated with institutions and corpora- 
tions o] lerating in nearly all branches of finance, and 
no great scheme projected for man) years past, involv- 
ing the advancement of San Francisco's interest, is 
disconnected from Mr. Huntington's name. 

It is. perhaps, owing to the important part Mr. 
Huntington took in the development of San Fran- 
cisco's street-car service that he will be best remem- 
bered in this city, although his local interests still 
remain varied and immense in the metropolis. He is 
a master of the intricacies of transportation problems 
and is continuously developing that industry in nearly 
all sections of the State. Although still engaged in 
building steam railway lines. Mr. Huntington is more 
largely interested in the extension and expansion of 
1 1 i — electric lines, and probabl) is the largest individual 
owner of such properties in America. The resultant 
value to San Francisco and the State of Mr. Hunting- 
ton's many investments is practically immeasurable, 
and he must be considered, in his field, the most influ- 
ential citizen of the State. 


In the hanking circles of San Francisco, Mr. Morel 
i- best known for the conservative methods he pur- 

Sues in the ownership and management of the wealthy 
private hanking house that hears his name. The 
"I'.orel I'.ank" is one of the oldest, as well as among 
the most influential, of the financial institutions of its 
class in the city. Mr. I'.orel is a large holder of city 
property, both improved and unimproved, and has re- 
cently added valuable purchases to his holdings, which 
are considered among the most desirable in the city. 
Me ix prominent in the business and financial affairs 
of the French and Swiss colonies, and has several 
times declined to receive especial honors as the gifts 
of the governments of France and Switzerland. 

Mr. Bore] maintains a palatial residence in San 
Francisco and a magnificent country home near San 
Vlateo. Me is a liberal, yet discriminating, patron of 
art. Both of In- residences are adorned with many 
costlj and beautiful efforts of old and modern masters 
of painting and sculpture. 


/'it,:'.' f>y Tabtr. 


rhotobv Tabir 

< Iras-. Valley, in Nevada County, has sent a number 
of permanent prominent citizens to San Francisco, and 
among them nunc is more generally esteemed than 
Robert Watt. 

.Mr. Watt was twenty years of age when in 1852 
he arrived in California, and took up the work of a 
miner in Crass Valley. He soon became a mine- 
owner and man of affairs, and eventually one of the 
most popular citizens in the State. Mis ability was so 
generally recognized he was made in IStiT a State 
Hank Commissioner, and on the expiration of his term 
'ii office was chosen State Controller. After serving 
California for eight years as a public official he re- 
tired, much to the disappointment of his friends, from 
public life, and thirty-live years ago removed to San 
Francisco, where lie engaged in mercantile pursuits, 
and has since resided. 

Mr. Watt is the president of the I.anglcv, Michael 

Drug Co., vice-president and director of the Union 
Trust Co., vice-president and director of tin- San 
Francisco Savings Union, director of the Wells Fargo 
Nevada National Bank, and of the San Francisco • las 
ami Electric Company, lie is a working capitalist, 

who personally attends to his extensive interests, and 
is one of die busiest nun of large affairs in the city. 

Mr. Wait erected the splendid brick structure now 
occupied bj the mercantile enterprise of which he is 
president. lie improved valuable realty situated on 

Kearny, Sutter and flax streets, in the retail district 

years .1140, and subsequently sold these properties. Ik- 
is an intense admirer of his adopted city, and a tire- 
less and effectual worker in aiding her best and most 
conspicuous efforts to increase her commercial pros- 
perity and general welfare. 


To most persons residing on the Pacific Coast Mr. 
De Young is known as the proprietor of the widely- 
read San Francisco Chronicle. It is true Mr. De 
Young is a noted newspaper proprietor and that his 
journal is, more than any other, given to developing 
the welfare of the State and its metropolis, but Mr. 
De Young's activities extend to a wider field. He is 
a capitalist, and one of the most influential members 
of the National Republican party. He is a large prop- 
er! v owner in San Francisco, and is now engaged in 
constructing an addition to the already towering 
Chronicle Building. This improvement, when com- 
pleted, will convert the Chronicle's home into one of 
the largest newspaper ami office buildings on the 
American continent. Mr. De Young also owns the 
Alcazar Theatre Building, a beautiful residence and 
tracts of desirable city realty. He is manager and 
trustee of the funds invested in and to be expended on 
the regal Fairmount Hotel, now in course of construc- 
tion on the crest of Nob Hill. 

Mr. De Young is an extremely active man. Al- 
though his interests abroad take him from the city at 
frequent intervals, he is ever in touch with its events 
and conditions. In his role as a private citizen he is 
admirable, and has more than once set an excellent 
example by personally serving his fellow citizens at 
critical periods in the city's welfare. Personally as 
well as through the columns of the Chronicle he cham- 
pions the best interests of his home city and State. 
Mr. De Young is an enthusiastic and generous lover 
of the arts, especially of music. 




I'hoto by Habtnuht. 

The Stuck and Bond Exchange of San Francisco 

includes in the list of its members the keenest and 
most active speculative spirits on the Coast. The ex- 
change is ever graduating from the ranks of its 
younger members men with big ideas and the abiht\ 
and enterprise to execute them. J. C. Wilson is con- 
spicuous anion;;' the latter set and lias become a marked 
man in the opinion of the exchange. He is popular in 
financial circles and does a large brokerage business. 
Mr. Wilson's social connections may be partly re- 
sponsible fur his large number of very desirable 


Frederick Tillmann is president of the powerful and 
wealth) German Savings Association of San Francisco 
ami of the Tillniann-I'.cndcl Mercantile Company, the 
largesl grocer) concern on the Pacific Coast, lie is 
also ih'' president and director of many other manu- 
facturing ami commercial enterprises, a number of 
which he originall) organized and all of which have 
greatlj added to the commercial wealth and prosperity 
of San Francisco. 

Air. Tillmann, who was born in this city, is one of its 
prominent and most energetic citizens. The same de- 
grei of comprehensive ability he brought to bear upon 
the discharge of his responsibilities as a merchant he 
t'lilizis in the position of president of ( alifornia's most 
notable savings bank, lie is and Iris been an eminent- 
ly successful man, whose large private interests and 

public-spiritc ilness have richly benefited the metrop- 

Photo by Taber. 



Photo by Taber. 

Among the men of San Francisco who have devel- 
oped the mineral resources of the State none has 
proved of more real benefit to California than W. H. 
Martin. He is practically the father of the famous 
Tuolumne County district, for it was through the suc- 
cessful efforts of Mr. Martin that some of the richest 
properties in the neighborhood of Jim Town and Jack- 
ass Mill were developed. Under his skillful director- 
ship the Rawhide and Bonanza leads became working 
mines of tin- largest value, lie has also controlled im- 
portant mining interests in Nevada and Calaveras 
Counties and other sections of the Stale. 

Mr. Martin in more recent years has been engaged 
in improving large tracts of real estate in this city and 
suburban towns, and personally controls some very 

valuable holdings. lie is licavib interested in street 

railway and other transportation enterprises and is the 
fourth vice-president of tin- Realty Syndicate, a cor- 
poration doing business in this city and Oakland. 

Mr. Martin is a typical San Francisco capitalist of 
the highest elass. distinguished for bis brilliant finan- 
cial successes, lie is a member of the leading clubs, 

commercial and mining organizations, and makes his 

permanent I e in tin- Pacific Union Club of San 



George D. Gray is the senior member of the ship- 
ping and lumber house of Geo. D. Gray & Company. 
The firm are agents for the California and Oregon 
Steamship Company, which owns a licit of eight swift 
and modernly constructed vessels. Mr. Gray is largely 
responsible for the present prosperous condition of the 
lumber trade of San Francisco. His firm annually 
transport to the city millions of feet of this output of 
the forests of ( Iregon and California, and are ex 
tensive dealers in all kinds of wood products. Geo. D. 
Gray is also the San Francisco agent of the Seattle 
Shipyards Company, a corporation doing an immense 
business on the Pacific Coast and the chief one of its 
nature on 1'rget Sound. He is also the agent for the 
Marine Railway and shops at Ballard, Washington. It 
will thus be seen that Mr. Gray's connection, directly 
and indirectly, with the shipping of San Francisco 
primarily, and of the North Pacific Coast generally, 
is of the highest importance, perhaps only secondary 
to the tremendous lumber and timber interests of the 
great firm of which he is the head and directing spirit. 

Air. Gray is thoroughly familiar with the marine in- 
terests and commercial possibilities of Sin Francisco, 
and does not hesitate to predict that within the near 
future this city will be one of the greatest ports in the 



Francis Smith is the founder and principal owner 
of the big manufacturing company of Francis Smith 
& Co. He is a pioneer in the industrial interests of 
the metropolis, and lias been connected with the intro- 
duction ami development of the water and irrigation 
systems of important mining and agricultural sections 
of Northern California. Mr. Smith commenced the 
manufacture of iron and steel pipe and sheeting at an 
earlv date in the cultivation and expansion of the re- 
sources of the interior of the State, and the enterprise 
has grown to be one of the largest in the West. The 
factory and foundry, now located in the Mission, 
covers nearly an entire block and employs hundreds 
of skilled laborers. 

Mr. Smith, during his long and busy career, has 
been associated with a number of the most prominent 
capitalists of the State, the late Alvinza Hayward be- 
ing an old and close friend. Mr. Smith is averse to 
discussing for publication his many interests, but he 
cannot conceal the fact that he has been, and is, an 
eminently successful man. He owns much valuable 
improved and unimproved realty in San Francisco, and 
large tracts of the choicest orchard and agricultural 
lands in Santa Clara County and city. 

Mr. Smith divides his time between the metropolis 
and Santa Clara, his beautiful home being located on 
the edge of the latter city. 


Lovell White, in an unostentatious sort of way, is one 
of the foremost men of today. In financial circles, both 
at home and abroad, he is, of course, quite well known 
and to the thousands of patrons of the San FrancJSCO 
Savings Union he is a familiar figure, the personifica- 
tion of business ability ami integrity. As cashier of 
one of the leading savings banks of the world Mr. 
White prefers to he known and remembered. 



Eugene J. de Sabla, Jr., was chief among the leading 
capitalists of San Francisco to foresee the coming im- 
portance of the city as a great industrial and commer- 
cial center. It was, doubtless, with this thought in 
view that he organized the Bay Counties Power Com- 
pany, a corporation which was eventually to become 
the most influential, and in itself powerful, utility in 
the metropolis. As president of this highly important 
enterprise, Mr. de Sabla was of tremendous service 
to those directly associated with him and to the public 
at large. With the rapid growth of the transportation, 
manufacturing and industrial interests of the city, new 
fields for the utilization of power were created and the 
scope of the original company enlarged. Hence, it 
was that out of the old Bay Counties Power Company 
grew the California Gas and Electric Corporation, 
with increased wealth and facilities, reaching out for 
new channels of investment and endeavor. Take it 
all in all, the California Gas and Electric Corporation 
is ihr mpst forceful agent employed at the present time 
in the rapid evolution of the metropolis. 

Mr. de Sabla is one of the heaviest capitalists resid- 
ing in the metropolis. He is identified with numerous 
industrial and financial enterprises, his name being 
found in the. directories of the leading and wealthy 
locaj corporations. Mr. de Sabla resides on California 
strcit in an elegant private mansion situated in one of 
the ctet's most attractive residential neighborhoods. 



..*,.' »*..**.% 

John .Martin, of San Francisco, has financed 
man) corporate and industrial schemes of magnitude 
and large public importance. He is not only a financier of 
extra -ordinary ability and activity, but has originated, owns 
and directs some of the largest and most valuable 
power, transportation and manufacturing enterprises 
in San Francisco and the State, lie enjoys an inter- 
national reputation as one of the most remarkable of 
successful men in investment circles and in the finan- 
cial art of combining and consolidating capital and 
corporations he lias no superior. 

Mr. Martin is the organizer and vice-president oi 
the California Gas and Electric Corporation, and has 

transformed that enterprise into our of the most tre 
mendouslv useful and powerful corporations in the 

West. The company is interested in industrial 

schemes of the highest importance to San Francisco, 

and is regarded as one of its most forceful agents in 

the present era of the city's upgrowth. 

Mr. Martin has entered the electric railwaj field, and 
the same brilliant results u hich have attended his 
direction of other ventures accompan) his progress in 
the working out and extensive application of rapid 
transit problems. I I,' projected and built the Nevada 

Count) Traction Railway, and is now constructing the 
California Midland Railwa) Company, being presidenl 

of both corporations, He lias an unshakable faith ill 

the manufacturing resources of San Francisco, and of 
the State, and is engaged in their development. Mr. 
Martin is the founder and president of the extensive 
woollen mills in Marysville, of Santa Rosa industries, 
and is the promoter and director of man) local indus 

tries, banks and other corporations. 




In the field of San Francisco journalism George K. 
Fitch has erected an imperishable monument. Full of 
years and honors, he has retired from active- participa- 
tion in the affairs of his beloved San Francisco, but 
the memory of the great good to this city he had ac- 
complished remains and will become an important part 
of the histor} of the metropolis. Vs the proprietor of 
the San Francisco Bulletin Mr. Fitch was of tremen- 
dous service to the city during its real formation period 
and the weight of the influence of that journal, under 
his ownership, was always thrown to the side of good 
government. "Flu- Bulletin, as directed by Mr. Fitch, 
published the leading and most reliable financial 
and commercial reports of the Pacific Coast, and was 
an invaluable aid to the commerce and industry of the 


The rapid advance in real estate values in San Fran- 
cisco lias opened up the way for the incorporation of 
investment companies of large wealth and purchasing 
power. ( ). H. Greenewald, a capitalist of well-known 
financial and commercial ability, organized and is the 
president of the Aha Investment Company, an influ- 
ential institution heavily interested in large blocks of 
choice realty. Mr. Greenewald also owns and controls 
vast timber lands in California and in other sections 
of the Pacific Slope and is a prominent factor in the 
city's lumber trade. He is also a director in the North- 
ern Commercial Company and other commercial and 
financial corporatii ins. 

Mr. Greenewald has been identified with the grain 
trade of San Francisco for a number of years. He 
built at Crockett one of the most commodious grain 
warehouses located in the neighborhood of Port Costa 
and has always remained its chief owner. ( hi the 
retirement of the Eppinger Brothers from the wheat 
market. Mr. Greenewald organized the Bankers' Ware- 
house Company, which took over and now controls the 
property once leased by the Eppingers. Mr. Greene- 
wald is now vice-president of the Hankers' Warehouse 
npany, which, like all of his ventures, has attained 
success and the widest public confidence. 

Mr. Greenewald, who is a comparatively young man. 
has many other interests of less importance. He is an 
enthusiastic believer in the destiny of San Francisco 
and has himself greatly added already to the commer- 
cial wealth of the metropolis. He is alert and acts 
quickly and with decision in business matters of the 
largest importance and is a splendid type of the class 
of able men whose brief biographies signalize this 




Photo tv Vaughan I 


The metropolis has no stauncher friend and citizen 
or one who more practically displays his confidence in 
its commercial future or who of late years has taken 
a more useful part in its growth than Captain John 
Barneson. He is, indeed, one of the most influential 
and active capitalists in San Francisco. He is the 
president and manager of the great shipping anil com- 
mission interests of the Barneson -Hibberd Company, 
Inc., which has the most intimate connections with 
leading importing and exporting mercantile companies 
of the highest standing. He is also president of the 
Western Commercial Company, ship owners, and the 
I'iper. Aden, Goodall Steamship ( ompany. The com- 
bined fleets of these organizations transport annually 
an enormous percentage of San Francisco's marine 

Captain Barneson is also president of the following 
notable and influential activities: Macondraj & Co., 
merchants; Teck < >il (ompany. Los Alamos ( )il and 
Development Company, Arline Oil Company, Inde- 
pendence ( )il Company, Wabash < >il Company, San 
Mateo Improvement Company, Santa Barbara Im- 
provement Company, and the Techau Tavern (om- 

( If late years Captain Barneson has found time out 

of an exceedingly active business career to give to 
aquatic and other high-class outdoor sport-, lie is a 
uarm admirer of dog- and horses, and is frequentl) 

chosen to award prizes and judgments in the rival 
shows of the fashionable set at Burlingame. 

Capt. William Matson, general manager and presi- 
dent of the Matson Navigation Company, is one of 
San Francisco's most notable men of today. Capt. 
Matson, being in a position to shape an accurate judg- 
ment, believes this city is to become one of the great- 
est ports in the world. His experience as a marine 
capitalist and the owner of many ships sailing the 
Pacific gives Capt. Matson's views unusual weight. He 
is an intensely practical man and has achieved success 
in life by forming sound business judgments concern- 
ing the possibilities of San Francisco and the State. 
Capt. Matson has large interests in Honolulu and is 
the local representative of the Honolulu Plantation 
Company. A number of his ships ply between San 
Francisco and the Hawaiian Islands. He is a large 
owner and director in oil pipe lines and has been great- 
ly instrumental in building San Francisco's present 
enormous trade in that valuable natural product. Capt. 
Matson was one of the first of San Francisco's com- 
merical magnates to realize the actual and prospective 
wealth and permanent productive power of the State's 
oil wells. He is the pioneer in the local industry of 
transporting oil by sea, and may with reason be called 
the "Oil King" of the Pacific Coast. He is vitall) 
connected with several oil transportation companies, 
among them being the Pacific, the Coalinga and the 
National. Capt. Matson is well known for his gen- 
erous and public-spirited nature anil is an immense 
favorite in shipping circles. 




CKSTLE. P*«Ii hOsttwManrer 

Mark Gerstle graduated from Harvard in the class 
of '89 and immediately thereafter entered the Harvard 
Law School, from which he also graduated in 1892. 
In the same year he began the practice of his profes- 
sion in San Francisco, and during the twelve years that 
have followed Mr. < lerstle lias not only acquired a largi 
and profitable practice, but lias developed into one of 
San Francisco's busiest and brainiest men of large af- 
fairs. His is a remarkable record of notable achieve- 

Tbe St. Francis Hotel of this city, one of the most 
elegantly appointed and conducted in the world, owes 
its being almost altogether to Mark Gerstle. He orig- 
inated the idea, financed the scheme, has always taken 
an active part in its affairs and is now the secretary 
and treasurer of the managing company. He is the 
president of the Home Telephone Company, which is 
to establish a system throughout the State and expend 
vast sums in San Francisco; he revived, put on a pay- 
ing basis and is a director of the old California In- 
surance Company ; he is one of the founders and a di- 
rector of the company controlling the Emporium, one 
of the greatest retail department stores in America ; 
he reorganized, is a director and a member of the 
Finance Committee of the Central Trust Company of 
this city; he manages the affairs of the private estate 
of the Gerstle family ; he is a large stockholder and di- 
rector in two of the most widely known and valuable 
enterprises in California: the California Fruit Can- 
neries Association and the Alaska Packers' Associa- 
tion ; is heavily interested in several real estate 
and investment companies, and is a director in a num- 
ber of additional influential corporations of wide re- 


The duties of the official representative of Spain 
are ably discharged in San Francisco by Mr. Goldara- 
cena, he having been appointed to the consulate's 
office some four years since. During this period the 
consul has been called upon to decide and conduct 
several highly important and delicate diplomatic mis- 
sions, and his brilliant success in CI including such 
negotiations has made him a marked character in 
Spain's consular service. Mr. Goldaracena is a native 
of California, having been born in Calaveras County, 
and has been a prominent attorncv-at-law for man) 
years in this cit) . 

The Spanish consul is an enthusiastic and confident 
citizen, who cannot do and saj i"" much for the 
metropolis. He has owned, and yet owns, a large 
quantitj of real estate, and has improved a number 
nf holdings in an elegant and substantial way. IK' has 

improved the northwest corner of Green and Mont 

g in avenue and erected the handsome Wilmott 

1 1, hi mi Seiur street, ami a commodious structure 
and apartment horse on Post street. The costl) prop- 
erty mi the southwest comer of Ellis and Jones streets 
was recenth sold b) the consul, bl't In- slill retains the 

ownership of the well-known Goldaracena apartment 
house on the northwest corner of Suiter and Larkin 
sireits. Mr. Goldaracena, who has been extremely 
fortunate in lis real estate investments, contemplates 
tin- erection of several additional improvements mi 
propertj in bis possession, in the near future. 


' fr ' t"!"! 11 ! 11 !" 



Mr. C. iM. Brune, the President of the Hank of 
America, is a man of wide experience in the financial 
world, who lias achieved a great success as a banker 
in the East. The Hank of America has one million 
dollars fully paid up in capital, and is one of the 
strongest hanks in the city. 

It is controlled by a syndicate of New York hankers 
and San Francisco business men. 


The James L. Flood, Jr. Building represents the ex- 
treme development of that branch of architecture as 
distinctively American as and known as office building. 
Mr. Flood's enterprise in erecting this structure has 
met with unqualified admiration and praise. The 
building has wonderfully enhanced its immediate 
neighborhood and added wealth and revenue to the 
city. The owner could have found no better way of 
perpetuating the family name. 

Mr. Flood, who is a director in the Wells Fargo 
Co-Nevada National and other banks, and great min- 
ing corporal ions, also owns the old Flood Building on 
Market street, and has recently completed a spacious 
and grandly furnished home in the Western Addition, 
overlooking the ocean and bay. His country residence 
is in San Mateo County. 

Mr. Flood's holdings of valuable city real estate are 
very large, and it is said he contemplates further 
costly improvements. lie has a large private fortune, 
and is warmly attached to San Francisco. He is a 
gentleman who apparently never docs anything "b\ 
halves," as the phrase goes. The new Flood Building, 

which is re of a palace than a business block, evi- 
dences this view. 


The commercial relations at present existing between 
the Hawaiian Islands and San Francisco are the re- 
sults of the efforts made by old shipping firms of the 
city to successfully establish the trade before the era of 
annexation. One of these stable business establish- 
ments is the house of Hind, Rolph & Co., of which Mi. 
James Rolph. Jr., is the managing feature and active 
spirit. The firm has a branch in Honolulu and inter- 
ests in the Islands. They are the Pacific Coast agents 
for the Hawi Mill and Plantation at Hawaii, and are 
the managing owners of the Island Line Shipping 
Company. The firm imports and are agents for house 
coals from Hepburn and Abermain, Australia, and in 
addition to these extensive departments of their affairs 
are the representatives of the Austrian Phoenix Insur- 
ance Co., of Vienna. 

James Rolph, Jr. is president of the Mission Bank, 
whose polio is controlled and a majority of its stock 
owned by the Bank of California, and is largely inter- 
ested in other financial corporations. 

v \. w \ riciNS. 

Among the men of progress and force none rank 
higher in this city than Mr. \. A. \\ alkins. the vice- 
president and manager of the well-known business 

firm of \Y. \Y. Montague & Co. ' >n all questions of 

the da) he is abreast of the limes, and is one of the 

firm believi rs ol the greatness ol San Frani isco. As pre 
sident ol the Board ol Trade he has made an enviable rec- 
ord, 1 lis inherent strong qualities and sterling character 
make him of valuable assistance to the man) inten -is in 
which he is connected, lb- is president oi the Phoenix 
Savings and Loan Association, on, of the mosl powerful 
companies on the Coast. 


1'twtO by Tabtr . 

John I). Spreckels is the eldest son of Claus Spreck- 
els, but it will not be as "the son of his father" that he 
will be alone remembered, and is now so widely 
known and highly appreciated, for .Mr. Spreckels is 

one of the most active and important spirits in the city. 
His career as a journalist has been successful and of 
real value to San Francisco and the State. Mr. 
Spreckels assumed the ownership and control of the 
at a time in the history of that journal when its 
closest friends believed it to have been mortally hurt. 
It is now in the front rank of the rich and influential 
dailies of the West. 

Mr. Spreckels is a director in many extensive cor- 
porations and is the president of the ( Iriental & ( Acci- 
dental line "t steamers, plying between this and East- 
ern ports. He has been a forceful factor in developing 
local marine interest-, and foreign shipping. The 
Spreckels line of tugs is an invaluable adjunct to the 
great shipping resources of San Francisco and an im- 
mense amount of capital is invested in it. In its class 
this extensive tug service has few equals in the big 
ports of the world. 

Like his distinguished father, Mr. Spreckels has 
largely contributed to the handsome physical appear- 
ance of the city. Several years ago he erected on Paci- 
fic avenue a private residence which in extent and 
in the character of its architecture and cost of its ma- 
terial, has as yet not been equaled by more recently 
erected palatial homes. This mansion would be con- 
spicuous on Lexington or Fifth avenue or Riverside 
Drive in Xew York. It is. of course, equipped and 
furnished in princely style and contains many rare art 


A. W. Foster, president of tin- California Northwest- 
ern Railway ami the North Shore Railway, is one of 
San Francisco's transportation magnates As the chief 

owner, practically, of these two important arteries of 
travel and traffic Mr. Foster has been of inestimabli 

value in developing the commercial resources of the 
metropolis and in creating, b) making accessible, vast 

and picturesque sections of the State. Mr. Foster 

shows the liveliest sort of personal interest in the cus- 
tom of the railways he controls of stocking the streams 
and woodlands along his lines with fish and game. 
I he California Northwestern and the North Shore are 
the strongest allies the legitimate sportsmen of San 
Francisco possess in the propagation and preservation 

■ if g line. 

Mr. Foster takes a deep interest in the problems in- 
volving the future development of the city's water 
front, and has large investments in real estate in that 
and other sections of the citj . 

Mr. Foster is a gentleman of wide culture and a 
generous patron of the fine arts, lie resides in a mag- 
nificent country residence in San Rafael, one of Sin 
Francisco's most charming and attractive suburban 
places of luxurious homes. 





Livingston Jenks is one of the most distinguished 
members of the San Francisco bar. For many years 
he has been conspicuous as a corporation lawyer, and 
has served as the leading counsel in numerous suits of 
the highest importance, and involving large monetary 
values. Mr. Livingston Jenks has been in the direc- 
tory of a number of financial and investment companies 
of large capital, and is held in high repute as a 

.Mr. Jenks, who has a large private fortune, is one 
of the warmest and most effectual supporters of the 
city's educational facilities. He takes an active part in 
library matters, and is conspicuous in the effort now 
being made to consolidate San Francisco's chief pri- 
vate libraries — the Mercantile and the Mechanics' 
Institute. Mr. Jenks has decided literary and artistic 
tastes and is possessed of the means to gratify them 
in the most liberal way. He is very popular in social 
and club life and is an observant traveler. 


One of the characteristic features of these sketches 
nf the "Men of To-day" is the wide diversity of the 
business interests of the men written about, suggesting 
the ability on the part of each to successfully direct 
several important pursuits at the same time. One 
may select as an eloquent and illustrative example the 
career of John A. Bunting. He is the president of 
the McNamara Mining Company ami nf the Cotton- 
wood Land Company, lie owns a big and famous 
stock ranch in Mission San Jose, and is an authority 
mi the breeding nf standard horses and cattle, lie is 
the president of the Shawmut • HI Company and vice- 
president of the Esperanza ( >il and ( las Company 

In addition to these valuable interests and 
important enterprises, Mr. Bunting is a large owner 
"i citj realtj and countrj lands, and a director of other 

On his highl) cultivated ranch in Centerville, Mr. 

Bunting has erected, at a cost of $75, one of the 

most attractive countr) residences in the State. Ills 
home is luxuriant!} furnished and an architectural 
gem. Around and about this charming villa arc artis- 
tically ornamented lawns and gardens. Mr. Bunting's 
home is the scene of many social functions of note, 
and he enjoys an enviable and wide reputation as a 
genial and accomplished host, Mr, Bunting's private 
car, "El Fleda" (named after Mrs. Bunting), is a 
familiar object in season at the State's fashionable 
countr) resorts. 






Among the leading members of the San Francisco 
Bar none has achieved a more desirable reputation or 
more valuable success than Tirey L. Ford. He began 
his professional career in this cit) relying upon his 
personal efforts ami ability to win his upward u.o 
His character and worth early attracted the attention 
of the profession and Mr. Ford was offered and ac- 
cepted a partnership in the office of ex-Senator Cross, 
the firm name being known as Cross, Ford, Hall & 
Kelly. Mr. Ford, subsequently, became known as the 
most accomplished and forceful mining lawyer in the 
State and was satisfactorily engaged as counsel by the 
.Miners' Association of California to conduct import- 
ant cases in behalf of the interests represented by that 
important organization. 

.Mr. Ford has been frequently importuned to serve 
his adopted State in positions f public trust and was 
finally induced to accept the Republican nomination 
for the office of \ttorney-l icneral. He was elected. 
but, after serving the State in that capacity for a short 
time, he resigned his office to accept the lucrative and 
conspicuous position of general counsel for the United 
Railroad-. Companj of San Francisco — a position he 
still holds. 

Mr. Ford is one of the most popular gentlemen in 
the city and intensely interested in its social and ma- 
terial development-. 

In the mercantile histor) of San Francisco I ol. An- 
drews will fill a COnspicUOUS place a- the foundd and 

proprietor of "Andrews' Diamond Palace," of inter- 
national I. mie. It is. perhaps among tin l.e-t known 
emporiums of the jewelry trade in the world, and has 

done i than .no othei in advertising at home and 

abroad the mineral products of the State adapted to 
manufacturing purposes for personal and household 
adornment. The "Palace" i- a remarkable exampli ol 
ornate decorations and costl) furnishings in the equip- 
ment of iblishments, and maintained a su- 
preme position in the United States in this respeel for 
nearlj a quarti r of a c. ntttry. 

Col. Andrews is one of the few remaining piot 

lie was a prominent figure in the affairs of Sacra- 
mento and San Francisco in the earl) '50's, and to his 
I happiness has lived to see the latter grow into 
a( metropolis. 

Vndrews is a member of several fraternal so- 
cieties, an honoran officer of the National Guard, and 
one oi several survivors of the old Sacramento volun- 
teer fire department. 



Photo by label 

The Schrotli Company of San Francisco was found- 
ed by the late (.'harks Schroth, a pioneer of the Golden 
State and a well-remembered citizen <>f Sau Francis- 
co. The company is an incorporated institution, iis 
president now being John V . Schroth, a sun of the 
originator of this important business enterprise. The 
Schroth Company deals in real estate, one of its chief 
objects being the improvement of desirable real prop- 
erty. It owns valuable sites in the ven heart of San 
Francisco, among them being a block mi Hard) Place, 
just off kearin Street, in tin- center of the shopping 
district. .Another valuable holding of the company is 
the improved lot on the northeast corner ol L'nion 
Square Avenue and Stockton Street. The building on 
the corner is sunn to he enlarged ami modernized in 
keeping with other elegant structures in that neighbor- 

I 'resident Schroth takes much pride in a recent large 
investment oi his companj represented in the magnifi 
eent Charlemagne apartment house on Geary Street, 
near Van Ness Avenue. This beautifulh constructed 
and embellished establishment is a most desirable ad- 
dition to the ornate architecture of the eii\ and to its 
residential facilities. It i- almost altogether buill of 
the products of California, it being the policj of Presi- 
dent Schroth to utilize home resources in the material 
improvements of tin 1 Schroth Company. 


.Air. Gerstle is connected socially and financially 

with several of the most prominent and wealthy fami- 
lies in San Francisco. Although comparatively a 
young man. he has already disclosed the well-known 
abilit) of the male members of the Gerstle famih for 
successfully managing and inaugurating large com- 
mercial ventures. Mr. Gerstle is very prominent in 
the affairs of the Northern Commercial Company, and 
is a director in several real estate investment companies 
and commercial corporations. 

Mr. Gerstle is a gentleman of large private fortune 
and a member of several of the leading chilis in the 



To be the guide, philosopher and friend of the citi- 
zens of the mosl cosmopolitan district of this city is a 
rare distinction, yel these appellations truly belong to 
Mr. Godeau. lie is the most popular, and in many 
ways, important citizen, doing business in what are 
known a- the North Beach district and Latin quarter. 
Mr. Godeau is om of the most benevolent gentlemen 
in a city noted for its generous-hearted men. He is 
and has been for many years prominent in all public 
movements projected for the improvement of the 
North Beach district and lias been directly responsible 
for the location in that section of several important in- 
dustries. Mr is essentially a public-spirited man. 

Mr. Godeau is an influential member of several so- 
cieties and fraternal organizations. He is one of the 
notable Druids of the United States, being a Supreme 
Representative of the order in this country and Past 
Grand Noble Arch of the Druidical t >rder of Califor- 
nia. , 

Mr. Godeau resides in one of the most attractive 
private residences on Van Ness Avenue, and the 
members of his family are quite prominent in social 


/'//!>/■' by Tattr 

Most persons who have acquired a competency or 
fortune through the commercial, industrial and other 
activities of California eventually come to reside in 
San Francisco. It is one of the most fascinating resi- 
dential cities in the world and has become the perma- 
nent habitation of many successful mining men. 

Among the recent additions to the financial circles 
of the city is R. V. Ilalton, formerly of Grass Valley. 
Mr. Halton has been for many years intimately identi- 
fied with a number of the most prominent mining prop- 
erties in Nevada and Tuolumne Counties. 

For ten years he was the superintendent of the 
famous Peabody gold mine, situated in Grass Valley. 
The mine, in addition to its yield of rich ore, is par- 
ticularly valuable from the fact that it produces more 
cabinet and beautiful specimens than any other mine 
in California. Its history in this regard is unique. Mr. 
Halton has successfully managed other valuable mines 
in Nevada County. 

Mr. Halton in 1809 became the lessee of the fashion- 
able Hotel Rafael of San Rafael, and has extended the 
reputation and patronage of that hostelry. He has 
proved an eminent success as a hotel man, and last 
July was induced to accept the position as general 
manager of Tait's Cafe, the largest and most luxur- 
iously equipped establishment of its nature in the city. 







Hartland Law is largely responsible fur the great 
impetus given building of the first class in this city. 
The brilliant success he made of the Rialto, on Mission 
Street, led to the purchase of the Bishop property, on 
.Market Street, and the erection of the Monadnock, 
which latter enterprise represents an investment of 
I?'.', 000,000. Mr. Law seems to possess a genius [or 
selecting sites and building thereon and for immediate- 
ly converting such properties into sources of large 
revenue. Mr. Law's buildings have largely increased 
the value of propertj in their near neighborhoods, and 
he is in a large measure responsible Eor the impetus 

given to the erection of metropolitan structures in this 
city. Herbert Law, of the Crossley Building, has 

been associated with bis brother in all of bis large 
building enterprises, and equally shares with him the 

enviable reputation of being our oi the city's most 

astute and progressive landlords. 


In the field of San Francisco's largest activities. 
William Babcock has always been an important and 
conspicuous figure. He has ever been intimately and 
influentially connected with the financial, commercial 
and industrial expansions of the metropolis, and is 
solely responsible for the brilliant consummation of 
vast projects of utility that have immensely benefited 
the commercial facilities of this city. His notable ser- 
vices as President of the Merchants' Exchange will 
always be remembered in business circles, and his 
name is inseparably linked to the enterprise which re- 
sulted in the erection of the Exchange's magnificent 
new building. 

Mr. Babcock's interests are varied and of the highest 
and widest value to San Francisco. He ranks among 
the most influential financiers of the country, being 
President of the Security Savings I '.auk and a director 
in other of the heaviest financial institutions of the city, 
including the Bank of California and its subordinate 
branches. No one man has accomplished so much as 
he in the way of opening up and developing San Fran- 
cisco's foreign trade and shipping, or in improving the 
docking facilities of this port. The San Francisco Drj 
Dock Company, of which he is the promoter, chiei 
owner ami president, is one oi the city's most useful 

Mr. Babcock is the controlling and directing spirit 
of the time-honored bouse of Parrott & Co., shipping 
and commission merchants, and marine insurance 
agents, The firm is known in all ports of the world, 
and has extensive connections in Honolulu, Hong 
Kong, New Zealand and Australia. For many years 
the ships of Parrott & Co. have been in trade with the 

Orient ami the Antipodes, building up the commerce 
of a great city and adding to the wealth and reputation 
of a great linn. 

William Babcock is a genial club man, He possesses 
beautiful homes in the city, on the baj shore, and in- 
terior country, and is enviabl} connected with the 

social life of the cil\ be lias don< so much to mipn 



\ EMINENT French artisl has said that 
i alifornians need nol come to Europi 
for portraits, -hut none better are 
painted here than in San Francisco," 
and there are those among us who, after 
an inspection of portraits in European 
galleries, have conn- to the same conclu- 
sion. We were hoping t" give some of 
the many interesting experiences oi Mr. 
Ilcniw Raschen, one of our local artists 
whosi stud) of nature among the hills, valleys, 
mountains and Indians of California, and of art in 
the besl schools of Europe, lias given skill to his 
brush a style of Ins own, and a demand for his work. 
But he objects, saying modestly, but doubtless with 
pride, "Let not the pen but m\ brush speak for me." 
We, therefore, give two half-tone reproductions of his 
paintings, though it will readily he understood that 
mere black and while can dn justice neither to the 
artist nor his wi >rk. 

The first is a portarit of Spotted Tail, the gr< il 
Indian orator and diplomat, a man of genius and in- 
tegrity, one of the greatest Indians that ever lived. 
He was a Brule Sioux, who was elected Chief of all 
tin Sioux tribes. He was six feet three inches high, 
a man of commanding form, majestic presence and 
great eloquence. With his deep, sonorous tones and 
fervid imagery he swayed those turbulent tribes like 
grass waving in the wind, while through his diplomacy 
he secured mam concessions from the United States 
Government for the benefit of his people and strove 
in est iblish a lasting peace. This painting with its 
brilliant colors has attracted great attention wherever 
exhibited. The second from the walls of his studio 
will he recognized as a portrait of the inventor. A. B. 
Bowers, of this city, and it is said by connoisseurs to 
equal in execution anything in portraiture to be found 

Kroiu an oil Portrait 
My the courtesy ol Mr. Henry Rasclien 

HERE is no equivalent in the English lan- 
guage for the word "genius," no syno- 
nym, no phrase, no sentence so pregnant 
of meaning and so full of importance. 
It denotes a character of transcendent 
and isolated mental equipment linked to 
equallj resourceful powers of accom- 
plishment. It means a personality unique 
and conspicuous in an environment of 
his own making and, therefore, real 
geniuses are scarce. 

Among others, California has Burbank and flowers, 
the first an apostle and originator of beauty of color 
and odor and form, the propagator and transformer of 
vegetable organisms ; the second an inventor who revo- 
lutionizes old methods, creates new industries to en- 
rich the world, and wdio utilizes the functions of his 
mind and body in a bewildering number of useful 
activities. Such is Bowers, and he, as well as Bur- 
bank, is a genius. 

The world may admire a dreamer; its respectful and 
lasting admiration is given only to the individual who 
adds something of thought or deed to its storehouse of 
treasures. A. B. Bowers has accomplished a remark- 
able amount of useful work. He has the mind of the 
inventor and experimental philosopher who passes 
successfully from one field of mental exploration only 
to eagerly enter another; he has budded books and 
maps and material public works ; he has been an in- 
structor in the schools of the State, as well as a student 
in the schools of art and science and law ; he is a dis- 
tinguished private citizen who has been a useful public 
official. An old friend says of him: "It seems to be a 
condition of his mind that it impels him to continual 
effort. He usually had some article under way for 
either Californian, Eastern, or European journals, on 
engineering, political economy, sociology, religion, 
poetry, hydraulic dredging or other topics of the day. 
The study of law- always had an attraction for his 
analytical mind. Long before he had become a victim 
of 'the law's delay' he had attacked that study with 
the fierce energy that was a part of his mental equip- 
ment. He read a whole library of authorities and, 
though he never practiced, was well grounded in the 
fundamental principles of law. Dissatisfied with the 
specifications and claims of his first attorneys, he was 
compelled to prepare and prosecute his own applica- 
tions for patents. This necessitated the study of patent 
law, and into this wilderness he plunged as if it were a 
garden of roses." This marvelous versatility has ma- 
tured many lines of useful endeavor and has rounded 
out and annexed to his individuality a group of strik- 
ing, useful and graceful accomplishments. .Mr. Bowers 
is not merely a distinguished inventor ; he is a civil 
and mechanical engineer, a surveyor, topographer, 
clever photographer, and an excellent draughtsman ; 
he is an extensive traveler with a retentive memory 
of places and facts ; he is an architect and builder who 
has designed and erected both public and private edi- 
fices ; a miner and a literateur who adds to his mental 
resources the ability of an interesting and witty writer. 

lecturer, debater and public speaker, "lie had taught 
his first school, written his first newspaper article, de- 
livered several lectures, made half a dozen political 
speeches and built his first dam at the age of sixteen." 

lie vitalizes every undertaking he has originated or 
in which he has been engaged. He has the mental 
graces of a poet which air sometimes found acting 
conjointly with the intellectual functions of the in- 
ventor, anil has written some graceful verse, though 
his lust work has been m prose. II,- has attained 
celebrity in fraternal circles and was one of the found- 
ers of the Technical Society of the Pacific Coast and 
of the California Association of Civil Engineers. He 
is a true and steadfast friend, a popular club man, en- 
joying membership in the Cosmos (where he resides 
when in this rit\ ) and other clubs, and is not un- 
known in society, though of late years he has di voted 
to this hut little of his time. He is a member of the 
Geographical Society, and, with his artistic tastes, 
naturally a member of the Association for the Adorn- 
ment of the City, as well as a patron and contributor 
to many charitable institutions and objects. He was 
a member ami participated in the transactions and dis- 
cussions of the International Congress of Commerce 
and Navigation at Brussels, in 1898, on which occa- 
sion he made the acquaintance of Leopold II of Bel- 
gium, and was entertained at the Palace by the King. 
He has recently made for the Government of the llrit- 
ish colony of the Bahamas an exhaustive, hydro- 
graphic, geological, tidal survey .if the Harbor of Xas- 
sau, traced and mapped its currents, made numerous 
borings to determine the amount of silt overlying its 
coral rock bottom, determined the sources of this silt, 
devised means for the prevention of further silting 
ami made plans for the permanent improvement of the 
harbor, being quartered while engaged in this work 
on one of the ships of the British navy. He is a Past 
Chancellor Commander of the Knights of Pythias, a 
member of Columbia Commandery Xo. '2. and a charter 
member of Almas Temple. Nobles of the Mystic 
Shrine of Washington, D. C. He also belongs to 
many other organizations, social, scientific, literary 
and fraternal. 

He is descended on both sides from Revolutionary 
stock. Mr. George Bowers, a man of education and 
means, his first ancestor in America, came, in 1G37, to 
Cituate, Mass., two hundred and sixty-eight years 
ago, from Kent County, in the South of England. 
where Bowers Hall, Bowers Meadows and the post 
town. Bowers-Giffbrd, still perpetuate the name. His 
name and those of his descendants are of frequent oc- 
currence in the Colonial records of Massachusetts. 
Every gun ration from George down has furnished men 
of wealth, doctors, clergymen, legislators, merchants, 
millmen, mayors, railroad commissioners, military of- 
ficers, engineers or lawyers, and some generations, 
nearly all, if not all of these at once. Five of his de- 
scendants loaned money to the Government for the 
prosecution of the Revolutionary war. On the ma- 
ternal side Mr. Bowers is descended, through the Earls 
of Errol and the Earls of Kinnoul, from the Hav fam- 

ily, that for a thousand years has figured in the history 
of Scotland, England and Ireland, and of which there 
are many distinguished and titled branches. 

Mr. Bowers has a quiet, dignified, somewhat re- 
served (but with kindred spirits) magnetic personal- 
ity. His manner, though genial, is commanding, and 
his conversation interesting, often witty, and at times 
terse and incisive. He possesses indomitable courage 
and persistence. He is president and vice-president 
of several large dredging companies here and in the 
East. As the inventor and patentee of the Bowers Hy- 
draulic Dredge and Hydraulic System, he waged a 
long and victorious fight for his patent rights in the 
patent office and against infringers in many States. 
These suits were bitterly fought in the U. S. Circuit, 
Appellate and Supreme Courts at a tremendous cost. 
A late writer has said of him : "It seems strange that 
a man who lias done so much, who has battled so long 

and hard, who has triumphed over difficulties from 
which another would have shrunk appalled, should 
show no trace of hardship in his style. It goes to 
prove that gentleness, tact, and kindness are not in- 
compatible with the stern, rugged, unyielding strength 
of genius." 

Mr. Bowers' mechanical inventions have given him 
international fame, while his reputation as a hard 
fighter for his rights is equally well known. His 
mechanisms and dredging systems are employed in 
great private and public works extending over two 
hemispheres. He has builded a monument to himself 
more lasting than brass, and will pass into the history 
of science and invention as a public benefactor. He is 
a genius who has won his title on the fiercest field — 
against the most resourceful competitors — in the 
brightest era known in the annals of the world. 


Apparently, all avenues of modern mechanical inge- 
nuity have been traversed and investigated to perfect 
the < His elevators. To a person not familiar with the 
resourceful agencies of the skilled mechanic, the auto- 
matic elevator, which dispenses with the presence and 
services of the "elevator man," represents the highest 
form of elevator construction. 

This mechanism is adjusted with the exactness and 
accuracy of a watch. It ascends and descends the 
shaft, making desired stops at each or all floors in obe- 
dience to the call of an electric push button. Safety 
is assured with more certainty than human care may 
promise, for the machinery under all circumstances 
doesn't Forgel anything, not even in ease of panic or 


The automatic elevator will not budge an inch, up 
or down, except when every gate on every floor is 
closed and locked. Reckless persons cannot tumble 
down an (His automatic elevator shall through open 
gates or doors. Employers will recognize in this latter 
very important feature a characteristic of elevator ser- 
vice likel) to do awa\ with the financial responsibili- 
ties of accidents and the services of an attendant, 

The Otis Elevator Co. has equipped nearly ever) 
importanl building in San Francisco with its products 
The company lias no rival in its field of industry, ye( is 
continuousl) working to improve and perfect its out- 

The magnificent and speed} elevators in San Fran 
Cisco's new Merchants' Exchange Building are splen- 

did examples of the company's workmanship. The) 
daily transport thousands of business people to and 
from the hundreds of offices in that mammoth building, 
without delay, swiftly and safely. 

From an economic point of view, the < His Elevator 
Company is one of the most useful and important 
forces in San Francisco. The affairs of the company 
are closely interwoven with the commercial life and 
material development of the metropolis, and its busi- 
ness can be taken as an index to the extent and char 
acter of the improvements progressing in the city at 
any time of the year. 

The building of freight elevators is one of the chief 
features of the company's business, and its annual out- 
put in this regard is enormous. The Otis freight ele- 
vator is comparativel) as perfect a machine as are the 
passenger cars, and are equall) as well known. The) 
are in universal use in the Pacific t oasl x t ites. 

Since elevators have become a necessity to the trans- 
action of all forms of business procedure and to main 
forms of social life, the question of purchasing and 

utilizing this or that elevator becomes a high!) import 
ant one. There is much truth in the old saw, "seeing 
is believing," and the great number of Otis elevators 
in use in this cit) al once demonstrates their popularity, 
and. it is onl) fair to add, their value to the publii 
w lii mi tlu j are generall) used. 

Eli vators have to si a ml a lol of criticism, .1- do othei 
methods of popular locomotion, but the Otis seems to 
please tile pei iple, for they all use 11 

W. CLARK is .1 son of Tilgham Clark, who was 
i In- . In 1 1 nginecrof the first steamboat to ply upon 
the Ohio river. The latter was born in Baltimore, 
.Marx land, subsequently removing to New Albany, In- 
diana, where the subject of this sketch was born on 
\ I a \ 26, 1828. ( in the breaking out of the Mexican 
War young (lark was eager i" join the United States 
army, but his father persuaded him to become a me- 
chanic instead oi a soldier. He was accordingly taught 
the useful and profitable trade of a blacksmith and 
forger. In these capacities he was given a position mi 
a .Mississippi river boat, and while his vessel was 
moored to the wharf in New Orleans in the spring of 
1850 young (lark concluded to cross the plains. With 
seven companions, of all of whom he is now the sole 
survivor, Mr. ( kirk successfulh made the journey. 


Since coming to California he has followed succes- 
sive!) the occupation of a cowboy, miner, merchant 
and lintel proprietor, cattle breeder, rancher, land- 
owner and capitalist. The result of his many-sided 
life lias been to make Mr. Clark an interesting- and a 
very rich man. 

Mr. Clark founded the famous trading and mining 
store of Clark & Cox, in Pekin, near Big Canyon. His 
competitors were the "Crocker boys," Henry, Charles 
and William, whose establishment was near In at 

Frenchtown. All of these gentlemen had become im- 
mensely wealthy years ago and all of them started 
the same way. Earl) in their mercantile histor) (lark 
& Cox became general traders. 1 mt gave most of their 
time and capital to the stock Inismess and to the ac- 
cumulation of lands. ( ine of the very peculiar business 
characteristics of the members of the linn is well 
worth) of special mention. They have been associated 
in business as partners for more than the half of a 
century and during that period have regularl) settled 

their affairs each month after determining the valui 

their profits, losses ami interests. When the regret 
table time arrives, these old merchants will leave their 
executors no intricate affairs to adjust. 

Clark S: fox are the owners of tin great [XL cattle 
and mule ranch near Altnras in Modoc County, which 
they are extending into the State oi ' IregOtl. The 

old firm of Milkr & Lux and the late Jesse D. Carr 
were in their lives the chief rivals of (lark & ( ox. 
i Iwing to recent operations of the firm, their former 
Kern County ranch of 50,000 acres has become the 
personal property of Mr. Cox and their ranches .if 
about the same number of acres in Tulare and San 
Luis Obispo Counties the private holdings of Mr. 
(lark. In addition to these xa-t estates. Mr. (lark is 
the sole owner of the Dixie ranch oi '.'".nun acres in 

Big Valley, Lassen County, of the San Juan grant of 

25, acres near fair ( )aks in Sacramento Comity. 

of in. nun acres on Tyler Island and of an ecptal number 
of acres on Grand Island in the Sacramento River, and 
of In, ikiii acres of tide land near the mouth of the 
American River, within several miles of the citj oi 
Sacramento, flu- configuration of these tule lands and 
their sxstcm of protecting levees are effective agents 

in safeguarding the Capital Cit) from river tl Is. 

Perhaps the most valuable of Mr. (lark's land- are 
those situated on Grand and Tyler Islands. 'fhe\ arc 
divided into sixteen ranches, eight of them on either 
island. These ranches are in a state of the highest 
cultivation and no richer alluvial soil is found in the 
most productive valleys of the world. On these 
ranches are located the immense bean and onion fields 

winch have been as often photographed as a stage 
beautv and concerning which innumerable newspaper 
and magazine articles have been written. 1 hex are the 
source of a princely revenue- to their owner. Ail im- 
mense amount of barley is also grown on the island 
ranches of Mr. Clark. 

(in Presidio Terrace near the local United States 
army post Mr. Clark is erecting a magnificent private 
residence which be will present to a member of bis 
family. The structure will he luxuriously furnished 
and adorned and will he in keeping with the donor's 
well-known reputation for doing generous and hand- 
si .me deeds. 

Mr. Clark is growing quite old in years, and yet. 
owing to his temperate habits, life in the ..pen and 
satisfactory material successes, lie is vivacious and 
hearty. His manner and conversation denote a sunny 
disposition and cheerful optimism. He is quite fond 
..f anecdotes and reminiscences and possesses a large 
store of facts relating to early California days. He is 
among the last of a notable group of men who gave to 
the world this powerful Stale, now swiftly gliding into 
a place of social and economic supremacy. In his 
person is visible the highest type of the American 





n n n 

HE cit) of San Francisco is one of the prin- 
cipal insurance centers of the continent. 
Here are represented fire and marine 
companies from Great Britain, from near- 
ly every country in Europe, from the An- 
tipodes, from the < )rient. from Canada, 
and from all parts of the United States. 
The territory reporting' to San Fran-i 
cisco extends from Texas to the Philip- 
pines and from Alaska to Mexico. Ex- 


cepting possiblj \'cu York t it\, this is the largest 
insurance agencj territory tributary to anj city. 

The population in this wide territory is not large, 
and while it is increasing and will eventually exceed 
30,000,000 in the Pacific West, it can maintain onlj 

insurance' center, and in the nature of things com 

mercial San Francisco must continue to be thai center 
oi underwriting management, Fire underwriting is 

complicated and expensive. It requires agents, 
brokers, inspectors, traveling men, adjusters, under- 
writers or managers, an army of clerks and sten- 
ographers and large offices at headquarters. There- 
fore, the file insurance business is an important factor 
in the growth and prosperity of San Francisco. 

Including local companies, there are some fifty fire 
general agencies and departments in the city, with 
offices within a radius of two blocks of the corner of 
California and Sansome streets. There are, besides, 
about thirty marine offices, representing 
nearly fifty marine and inland-marine 
companies. There are more marine in- 
surance companies operating in San 
Francisco than in any other city in the 

The number of fire insurance com- 
panies represented in the city is gener- 
ally about 100. A high loss ratio quickly 
reduces the number. Foreign companies 
are about one-third of the total. There 
are three California fire companies. 

The business written by fire under- 
writers is always a sure indication of the 
condition of the general business of a 
city. State or section. The amount 
written, the liability assumed in one year 
as compared with other years iua\ be 
termed a commercial barometer which 
records the financial pressure. The gross 
amount written 1 > \ the companies indi- 
cates the state of the business elements, 
The amount written on California 
property now averages about $600,000, 
(Hill a \ear, and the average for the Othet 
Coast and Rocky Mountain States com 
bined is about the same amount. The 
amount written annuall) in California 

is now 250 per cent more than it was 

1 weni \ In e J ears ago. 

The annual premiums on the $1,200,- 

'*- 000,000 of luisuiess written amounts in 

more than $21,000,000, of which more 

than $19,000,000 passes through San 

Francisco channels. All this large sum. excepting a 

small underwriting profit, is paid out again for losses, 

Commissions, expenses, fees an,l taxes. Ill, 
expenditures in this eil\ run up into die millions. 

The figures of the business written, as compared 
with previous years, indicate unexampled growth in 

insurable wealth. \t present there is no ill.! 

thai the wave of prosperity is beginning to wane. 

San Francisco ranks among the leading cities in 
business written and in premiums collected, but as 
rates in large ana'- and cm main classes of risks have 
been reduced in recent years, the premium income 
shows small gains as compared with other cities or 

with the remainder of the State. It is a fact not 
generally known that San Francisco rates are lower 
than in similar cities in the East. < Iwing 1" the excel- 
lence of our lire department and to the abundance of 
the water supply, aided by good fortune, tires, though 
numerous, are not destructive as a general thing. I he 
hazard of a great conflagration exists, however, anil 
the growth of the city in merchandising and manufac- 
turing is steadily adding to the probabilities of destruc- 
tive tires. This city has a far greater proportion of 
wooden or frame buildings than any other American 

The tire underwriters support a tire patrol or sal- 
vage corps, which has several stations and wagon 
and employs a large number of men. The patrolmen 
hasten to tires, co-operate with the firemen, 
spread tarpaulins over goods to protect them 
from water, and aid otherwise' in the salvage 
of property. Uninsured as well as insured 
property receives the benefit of the services of 
the patrolmen. The Underwriters' Fire 
Patrol was organized in 1875. 

The underwriters pa) the salary of the cit) 
tire marshal. This official investigates the 
origin of fires and prosecutes when the evi- 
dence indicates arson. The performance of 
his various duties deters incendiaries and in 
sures the observance of building and sto 
laws designed to minimize the hazards of lire. 
The office of fire marshal was created in 1864. 

The underwriters support an inspection 
bureau in San Francisco. This bureau has 
branches in nearly all the principal cities of 
the Pacific Coast Stales. The inspectors ex- 
amine old and new buildings and make mau\ 
valuable suggestions as to construction, alter- 
ations, wiring, lighting, heating, etc. These 
suggestions are based on the experience of 
many years in many cities, ami when carried 
out by property owners result in reduced fire 
losses and lower rates. 

Everywhere there are organizations of un- 
derwriters. These are generally known as 
boards and are either local or general. The 
cost of fire insurance is always an unknown 
quantity. Any rate of premium is a guess. 
A premium rate represents the average expe 
rience of many companies in a wide area for a 
long time. This average experience is ascer- 
tained through organization. The rating machinery 
is unavoidably complicated and expensive, but with- 
out it there can be no sound insurance nor moderate 
rates. It furnishes the basis of all rates everywhere. 

San Francisco has one of the best underwriting or- 

ganizations in the world, it is named The Board of 
Fire Underwriters of the Pacific. It should not be 
inferred that this or any other board is merely a 
rating organization. The great work of underwriting 
boards is the diminution of the tire hazards by the im- 
provement of individual risks and by the encourage- 
ment of good or the penalizing of bad fire protection. 
The Board of hire Underwriters of the Pacific has 
rendered invaluable services in behalf of better build 
ing laws, stronger restrictions as to storage of in- 
flammables, the enforcement of arson laws, the en- 
largement of water supplies, and the improvement of 
fire-fighting facilities generally, rhese services have 
contributed very materially to the favorablcncss of the 
"burning loss" ratio— of losses to amount at risk — in 
the Board's wide territory. The Hoard of Fin Un 
derwriters of the Pacific employs a large corps of 

talented men as managers, surveyors, inspectors, etc. 

in nil - .i large clei ii al foro 
The Fire Underwriters' Association of the Pacific is 


an organization of field men and others. It was organ- 
ized in 1ST"). The annual meeting is attended by- 
special agents from all over the Coast. The papers 
read at this meeting are of a high character, and are 
printed in book form and widely circulated. 


fi.1.1. Fait 



The assistant secretary of the Pacific department of 
the Liverpool & London & Globe Insurance Company, 
C. Mason Kinne, came to California in 1859, and rep- 
resented his adopted State for three years in the 
Union arm) in Virginia during the Civil War. He 
also i- a California pioneer underwriter. In 1866 he 
entered the service of a local companj as city agent; 
later he went with another local company as city 
agent, and when it-- business was reinsured by the 
Liverpool & London & Globe in lsvi he was employed 
by the latter company, and has continued in its service 
ever since. Mr. Kinne is the author of what is known 
as the Kinne Rule for apportioning losses on non 
concurrent policies. This rule was adopted bj the 
Fire Underwriters' Association of the Pacific in 1885. 
Mr, Kinne is prominent in Grand Anm circles. 


Among the pioneer underwriters of San Francisco 
is the resident secretary of the Pacific department of 
tlie Liverpool ec London <S: Globe Insurance Company. 
He engaged in fire underwriting in the early 'tin's. In 
1865 he was elected secretar) of the Union Insurance 
Company, of San Francisco. In 1881 he resigned to 
accept his present position. Mr. Haven was elected 
secretary of the Board of Fire Underwriters in 1870. 
In 1896 he was elected president of the Board of Fire 
Underwriters of the Pacific, and lias been re- 
elected to that position ever) year since. The Liver- 

1 1 & London & Globe Insurance Company occupies 

its own building, which is an ornament to our cite. 


(.'HAS. 1) IIAVKN. 


Tlu- president of the Fireman's Fund Insurance 
Company, William J. Dutton, has been associated with 
this flourishing San Francisco enterprise since he was 
twent} years old. At the age of twenty-two he was 

appointed marine secretary. Promotion was rapid, for 
he possessed executive ability, and speedily developed 
talent as an underwriter. He successively became as- 
sist mt secretary, secretary, vice-president and man- 
ager, and president of the company. Mr. Dutton has 
been president of the Board of Marine Underwriters, 
of San Francisco, for many years. The Fireman's 
Fund Insurance Company own their own building, 
which is located in the center of what is known as the 
insurance district, corner of Sansome and California 


The Pacific department of the Royal Insurance 
Company and of the Queen Insurance Company, which 
holds high rank in premium income, is under tin 
management of Rolla V. Watt, lie has been the man- 
ager since 1894, ami has been engaged in un< 
writing in San Francisco since 1882. Air. Watt has 
been a president of the Fire Underwriters' Associa- 
tion of the Pacific, a member of the Board of Fire 
Commissioners of San Francisco, and a president of 
the Young Men's ' hristian Association. lie is active- 
ly identified with several charitable and other societies. 
The Royal Insurance Company, of Liverpool. Eng 
land, has been doing business in San Francisco for 
mam years. It occupies its own office building at the 
northwest corner of Sansome and Pine streets 




The veteran manager oi the Pacific department of 
the N'ational Fire insurance Company of Hartford, 
and tile Springfield Fire and Marine insurance Corn- 
pan) of Massachusetts, George D. Dornin, is doubly a 
pioneer. He is a '4i)er, having come to California, via 
Cape Horn, in 1849; and a-- he was appointed a local 
insurance agenl in Xorth San Juan in \evada County, 
in IS(i3, In is also a pii meer in Pacific ( nasi fire under 
writing, Mr. Dornin was general agenl of the Fire 
man's Fund Insurance Company, in 1871, and ad- 
justed thai company's losses in the great fire in Chi- 
cago. Mr has represented liis present companies i<>i 
mam years, ami lias placed them in the front rank. 

The staunch and well-known Northwestern National 
Insurance of Milwaukee. Wisconsin, which was or- 
ganized in 1869, ami glories in the magnificent cash 
assets of nearly $4,000,000, is managed in this city In 
Mr. A. A. Allen. A thorough knowledge of the in- 
surance business, gained by many years of active ex- 
perience, stamps the subject of this sketch as a genius 
of labor, ami the history of his career hears witness 
to the tact that he possesses progressive characteristics 
which have secured him a front place in the insurance 

Mr. Allen has a pleasing personality, an optimistic 
nature, quiet manner and is reserved, yet forceful. 
I '.road, wise and enterprising in trade and finance, a 
mural and social model, Mr. Allen combines the 
solidity i if the old conservatism with the progress of 
the age, and is in ever) respect a worthy example of 
the hest type of the men of to-day. In all his views 
Mr. Allen is broad-minded, lie enjoys the reputation 
(if being fair in all his dealings, possessing many ad- 
mirable traits which have earned for him high en- 
comiums and brought him success in business, promin- 
ence in citizenship and happiness in home life. 


The senior member of the insurance linn of Edward 
Brown & Sons is Arthur Merrill Brown, who has been 
engaged m insurance work in San Francisco since Ik 
was a lad of sixteen. His general agenc) is among 
the leaders in premium income. Mr. Brown, in the 

course of his underwriting experience, has visited all 

the cities and nearly all the towns in the Rock) 

Mi mntain and < J asl States. 



A.NKS arc omnipresent and of multifarious 
degrees of importance and purpose in 

B civilized countries. There are banks for 

the saving of pennies and sums so small 
as the scriptural widow's mite; and there 
are banks which finance great wads on 
land and sea. avert national bankruptcy 
i ir push i" completion the stupendous 
material scheme- of governments and the 
commercial and other plan- oi corpora- 
tions and private individuals. 

Relatively speaking, San Francisco lias more rich 
banks than any city in the world, if not the richest. 
and several of them are among the best known in the 
history of finance. San Francisco banking paper and 
letters of credit are familiar objects in all money cen- 
ters at home and abroad, and the foreign corre- 
spondents of local institutions are sprinkled over two 
hemispheres. The expansion of the city shipping in- 
terests, the variety anil sum of its exports, both by At- 
lantic and Pacific seaboards, and the fact that it re- 
mains the gold-mining center of America are largel) 

responsible for this happy condition. 

The multiplication of banking facilities in San Iran 


Cisco during the past five years has been unusual in 
the histories of large cities. Doubtless, the) came into 
being to saii-fy a demand, for banks, like other ven- 
tures, are directed tor profit. The apparent success 
of the newer banks, in some instances, has been phe- 
nomenal, and this is particularly true of those situated 
in populous outlying retail districts. The success fol- 
lowing the establishment of branches of the old banks 

was. of course, reasonably expected. During the pas) 

year the consolidations of prominent banks have 
proved matters of interest and importance at anil ami 
from home. 

The monied institutions of the city have been liberal 

and energetic in encouraging the development of the 

metropolis and Northern California. Taken in their 
entirety, the bankers of San Francisco form a compam 
of enterprising men who are not too fond of talking 
and banqueting, but who actually in the course of a 
twelve-month get behind quite a number of practical 
propositions looking to the betterment of the city. Some 
of them are gentlemen of large private means and 
many valuable interests. They are proud of their city's 
history, of her remarkable achievements, and arc in- 
tensely loyal. Their homes are beautifully constructed 
and luxuriously furnished, and among the directories 
.lie generous patrons of the arts and sciences. The 
magnificent conception to eventually transform San 
Francisco into a city of surpassing physical attractive- 
ness finds among them many ardent supporters. The 
local banks are extensive holders of realty in the city, 
and the character of the improvements erected and 
planned by them reflect the stable confidence these 
corporations possess in the possibilities of San Fran- 
cisco. Some of the recently constructed hank and safe- 
deposit buildings are strikingly conspicuous and add 
vastly to the city's attractiveness. They are costly and 
dignified examples of architecture and are enhanced 
with artistic embellishments. Their vaults, deposi- 
tories and general equipment are the most secure and 
perfect that modern handicraft and intelligence can 

There are '.'"•"> commercial banks in the State. 34 
of which are located in San Francisco ; the total capital 
of the city commercial banks is $18,327,750.46; of the 
interior commercials. $23,363,186.25; the total reserve 
of the city commercials is $12,412,383.38; of the in- 
terior commercials. $9,768,857.92; the total de- 
posits of the city's commercials are in excess of 
$" 1,896,872.73; of the interior commercials in no - 
of $75,057,410.49. 

One hundred and nine savings banks do business in 
the State, twelve of which are located in San Fran- 
cisco; the total capital of the city savings is 
$5,135,000; of the interior savings. $6,644,894; the 
total reserve of the city savings is $7,129,871.88; of the 
interior savings. $3,249,803.53; the total deposits of 
the city savings is in excess of $163,180,195.05; of the 
interior savings, in excess of $84,733,412.73. In addi- 
tion to these banking facilities of San Francisco are 
nine national banks, twent) -three private banks of 
large aggregate wealth, and numerous trust com- 

The following comparative aggregate statements of 
the eighteen commercial, four national and nine sav- 
ings banks of lilOO and the thirty-four commercial, 
nine national and twelve savings banks of 1905 show 
the increase in local banking business during the past 
five vears : 



Bank premises $ 3,834,081 

Other real estate 7. 8 01,1 11 

Stocks and bonds 63,2 I;!,usl 

Loans and discounts... 123,092,775 

Money on hand 19,863,69] 

Due from banks and 

bankers 18,064,819 

( Ither assets 3,116,999 

Total $239,016,560 



Capital paid up $ 18,653,958 

Reserve and profits.... 22,483,373 

Due depositors 178,2 13,508 

Due banks 10,761,631 

Other liabilities 8,81 1,082 

Total $239,016,560 


$ 6,348,575 








$ 32,680,932 

23,1 1:5,621 


30,09 1,401 

1 1,851,861 


This statement shows an increase of $122,000,000 in 
assets; of practically $82,000,000 in the amount due 
depositors and over $19,000,000 due banks. It also 
shows a decrease of $3,500,000 in the value of "other 
real estate" held by banks, which means that the sav- 
ings banks since 1900 put upon the market and sold 
nearly one-half of the realty taken up by them on 
foreclosed mortgages. 

The consolidation of the Nevada National Bank 
and Wells Fargo & Co.'s Bank was one of the most 
notable financial incidents of the past year. The 
union of these two wealthy, popular and historically 
famous institutions means much in banking circles. 
Each of them for many years has enjoyed the confi- 
dence of the people of the Great West and their names 
have been linked with the many important enterprises 
having their inception and development on the Pacific 
Coast. The union is known as the Wells Fargo-Ne- 
vada National Hank. The hank occupies the old 
quarters of the Nevada National in the Nevada Block, 
on Montgomery Strict, which have been enlarged for 
the purpose. The resources and chief officials .if the 
new bank are as follows: Capital paid up, 

$6,000, : surplus, $3,500, leposits, in excess of 

$20,655,194.58. President, Isaias W. Hellman; cash- 
ier, 1'". L. Lipman. 

"The Bank of California" is ;i phrase as familiar to 
the citizen of California as was Dickens' "Household 
Words" to Londoners. The history of the bank is the 
histor) of the city of its birth and home. Its reputa- 
tion runs fir abroad, for men talk about the Bank of 
California in the gold fields of Africa and on the 
plains of Tartary. Its absorption of the London and 

San Francisco added to its wealth anil the scope of its 

operations. The bank has a flourishing branch in the 
Mis-ion district and will, it i- reported, ereel a costh 
and ornamental building for its own and other pur 

poses on its present site. The resources and chief of 
ficials of the bank are as follows: ( apital, paid in gold 

coin, si i ,000; surplus and undivided profits, 

$9,661,833.00; deposits, in excess of $27,960,790.9] 
President, Homer S, King (former!) of Wells Fareo 

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& Co.'s Bank); Irving F. Moulton, cashier. The bank 
has branches in Portland, Tacoma, Seattle and Vir- 
ginia City. 

The Crocker-Woolworth National Bank was organ 
ized in 1886. It partly occupies and owns one of the 
most conspicuous office buildings in the city, (apital. 

$1,000,000; surplus and undivided profits, si. .".no. >. 

deposits, in excess of $13,621,647.37. Win. 11. 
Crocker, president; W. Grieg Jr.. cashier. 

The American National Bank passed ruder its pres 
cut management in 1902, with deposits amounting to 
$387,728.70. The deposits al present tire in excess of 
$5,096,131.22. Capital, surplus and profits. $1,289 
811.13. President, P. E. Bowles; Ceo. \. O'Brien, 

California Safe Deposit and Trust ( ompany is man- 
aged In J. Dalzell Brown. It is the fiduciary agent of 

the Western Pacific kailwa\ Co., the new line now 

being constructed on the coast b> the Goulds to com- 
plete a transcontinental line from seaboard to 
seal ii iard Capital and surplus, $1,521.711.98 ; deposits, 
i, 160,000. 

The Mutual Savings is also a commercial bank. It 
gives much attention to loan- on real i state and to im 
proved properties. ["here has been a flattering in 
crease in the hn sines- of the bank since its removal to 
us building on Market Street, which is one of the 
most -inking and imposing ^n that thori 

Guaranteed capital, $1,000,000, surplus. $300,000; de- 
posits, $9,9000. 

In one of the handsomest buildings in San Fran- 
cisco, and erected by it, are the offices of the San 
Francisco Savings Union, a financial institution of the 
highest rank in San Francisco. Capital, paid up. 
$1,000,000; reserve, $991,470.99; deposits, $33,000,- 

President, E. B. Pond; Lovell White, cashier; 

R. Welch, assistant cashier. 

The German Savings and Loan Society "i San 
Francisco enjoys not onlj a local, but a European 
celebrity. Its wealth and tin- volume of its business 
place it in the front rank of American savings banks. 
Its deposits arc enormous and amount to 

menl of tlic hank's resources is one of the marvels in 
the history of the city's solid business enterprises. 
President, John Tobin; Jas. K. Kelly, cashier. 

The First National Bank has a capital of 

St.: ,000, a surplus of $1,531,152.80, and deposits 

amounting to $9,378,173.28. The hank was organ 

ized in 1870. S. G. Murphy is president, and J. K. 
Moffitt, cashier. 

linong the foreign banks represented in San Fran- 
cisco i- the London, Paris and American I '.auk. The 
hank has a paid up capital of $2,000,000, and a reserve 
fund of SI. luu, nun. Sigmund Greenbaum is mana- 
ger of the San Francisco branch; cashier. Richard 


$37,738,672.17; capital, paid up. $1,000,000; reserve. 
$1,225,000. Fred Tillmann, ]r.. president; cashier. A. 
II. R. Schmidt. 

The Hibcrnia Savings ami Loan Society has about 
completed the extension of its classic building, and 
the structure reflects in its severe and solid lines the 
stability of the institution it shelters. The Society, 
with the lapse of time, grows in prosperity, and is now 
among the richest banking institutions in the world. 
Its deposits exceed $60,000,000, and it owns a vast 
amount of city real estate. The storj of the develop- 

The .Mercantile Trust Company has a paid up cap- 
ital of $1,000,000; surplus. $500,000; deposits. 
$6,294,789.56. X. D. Hideout, president: John D. 
McKee, cashier. 

The offices of the Union Trust Company are the 
largest, the most ornate and expensively decorated and 
furnished in the city. The massive building in which 
they are situated is an architectural feature of the 
down town district. Capital and surplus. $1,984,935.57 : 
deposits, $15,751,700.54. Isaias Hellman, president; 
Chas. 1. Decking, cashier. 






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HEN the great Panama ditch is completed, 
San Francisco will rapidly become the 
most important sea-port in the world. 
She will not only attain that position 
quickly and to her own material advan- 
i ige, but to the enrichment of the entire 
Western country. It will make of her 
the mistress of two oceans, and will place 
the city in the attitude of a metropolis 
dominating the marine commerce of two 
hemispheres. Foreign shipping will at once receive an 

the scene of its marine activities a clear idea of San 
Francisco's importance on the water. Something like a 
correct idea may, however, be formed from the follow- 
ing reliable statistics which it has, for man) reasons. 
been unable to bring up to date : 

Exports front San Francisco to domestic and for- 
eign ports front July 1, 1904, to July 1. 1905, amounted 
in value to $64,229,934, a gain of nearly 25 per cent. 
over the value of the exports of the previous year, and 
of To per cent over those of 1901. The list of articles 
included in exported merchandise embraces an almost 


enormous impetus, with a corresponding development endless variety, ol which lumber, wheat, beans, flour, 

oi domestic and Coast trade barlej and coffee, constitute valuable and important 

\t present, owing to the varied nature of the city's features. Both the imports and exports an ol an 

marine commerce, it is difficult to specialize, when unusual!) complex nature. It is not possible to das 

brielK writing of one of its greatest interests, to a sif) and tabulate the commerce passing over the 

degree sufficient!) clear to give the reader away from wharves ol San Francisco, as enormous quantities in 

tonnage and valni are received from interior points b) 

rail and wain-, and shipments made to those points as 
well. I lir trade with other ( oasl ports is vast, ["he 
following statistics of the San Francisco tonnage move- 

1 1 u ■ 1 1 1 is I'n- tin' same period as above — Jul) 1. 1904, in 
Jtih I. 1.005 : 

,\RRI\ \l . 

li'Mii Steam, 


Coasl 1,557,466 

British i olumbia V 19,089 

I law aiian I slands 1 15,025 

Uaska 1i;.s:::i 

Eun ipe ">:i.!i in 

China 232,480 

Smith Aim ru- i 105, I l!i 

I 'hilippines 51 ,930 

Australia G(!,012 

Mexico 1 l.'.'Si; 

1 United Kingdom Countries 793 

Eastern Ports 89,70"! 

Pacific [slands 21,329 

Various 6,201 



1 i ms 








1 l 

1 56 

.11 1 



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Uaska 17.401 

Europe 18,31 1 

China 236,126 

South America 105,351 

I 'hilippines 78,31 1 

Australia 79,428 

Mexico 1 1,286 

I mini Kingdi mi I - >iiiitrH-s 

Eastern Ports 12,988 

Pacific [slands 22,253 

\ ai ii ni- 5,423 

18.31 1 

1 1.) I I 

:i 1 2 




: ,2 1 1 


Over 150 vessels arc annually engaged in whaling 
and in tin- salmon fisheries of tin- < oast, all of which 
arc owned or chartered 1 >> local owners ami agents. 

Ii is said that "San Francisco finds its rational and 
best expression in its water front," ami that there are 
two aspects to il the laml side of the lia> sin ire ami 
thai view which is taken of its shipping interests, ami 
both arc. of course, inseparably linked t" a common 
purpose. Tlic growth in the domestic marine con 
merce of the city during the pasl two or three 
the source of wonder to the most experienced oi 
ing men ami shipping merchants. The business between 



From Steam, Sail. 

Tons. Ions. 

1,620.052 116,269 

British I olumbia 208, 178 16,906 

ii in [slands 124.651 127,240 

this and lower Coast ports is increasing literally in 
bounds of prosperity, necessitating; an enlarged service 
and the creation of new lines of vessels. Every year 
i lie tonnage movement up and down San Francisco P,a\ 
ami the Sacramento and Columbia Rivers show- a 
marked improvement, and San Francisco has. despite 

the herculean and persistent effort of northern ports, 
maintained her splendid trade with British Columbia 
and Alaska. The Pacific Coast salmon interests, the 
output of which is shipped into San Francisco, last 
year amounted to over 1,500,000 case of packed sal- 
mon, a single item that will go far toward substantiat- 
ing some general statements made in this article. The 
extent of the lumber interest of the metropolis can be 
estimated within reason when it is stated that from the 
water front last year, lumber to the value of nearly 
$25,000,000 was shipped b) sea to the ports of the 
world, and some idea of the State's fruit industries 
max likewise he obtained from the valuation of its 
canned and dried fruit exportation, amounting also to 
$25,000,000. The metropolis is a tremendous shipper 
of flour and raw wheat, many vessels annually visiting 
her harbor for grain cargoes from all parts of the world. 
San Francisco's marine interests include many lines 

tea, and mam cargoes of costlj furniture, curios and 
work of < (riental art. In turn, these countries are largi 
buyers of the products of American farms and facto- 
ries. The coal interests centered in San Francisco are 
very large and regularly require the services of main 
fleets of capacious steel steam colliers. 

So far as San Francisco's commerce is concerned, 
rounding Cape Horn, with its att( tiding danger,. dcla;, s 
and disasters, is soon to become a seafaring experience 
of the past. From the time when Verba Buena was a 
mere military post until the present, it has ever been 
predicted that San Francisco was to derive her real 
greatness from the sea. It has been the history of all 
truly permanent great habitations of men, and surelx 
no city has been, or is more favored to fulfill a prophecy 
of greatness — a greatness singular and incomparable - 
than California's metropolis. The fact of the matter 
is that the nation is vitally interested ill the growth of 


of passenger vessels of the vcr\ highest types oi 
safety, speed and elegance. These vessels ply between 

the chief ports of the Philippines, the South Sea 
Islands. Japan and China, as well as the coast and rivet- 
cities of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska and 
British Columbia. All of these vessels are also freight 

carriers, and mam of them are powerful and huge 

craft. The largest sailing ships ever constructed enter 
the harbor of San Francisco sooner or later to dig 
charge and receive immense cargoes 

The importations of the c\i\. aside from Food pro 
duns, embrace man) articles of great value. Although 

she aiiuualh exports millions of dollars' worth ol 

wines, San Francisco imports large quantities oi the 
same article. From China and Japan sin receives 

innumerable bales ,,f silk, lugs of lice and caddies , 

this urban giant on the shore "i the Pacific, a- the 
nation is interested in the developmenl of no 

American city. San Francisco is to be the western 
gateway to a republic of a magnitude and import 
in the affairs ><i the world. SO dazzling and s, i fj 

with lug iliings and big events we. of the present, can 

form no descri liable conception of it. \'o Otlli 
will go further to elevate the cit) to tin destin\ uni 
salh hoped for and expei ted ol il than tin ship 
interests. It is expected that San I will keep 

an eye upon, master and absorb the trade existing and 
to be cultivated between die two chief empiri 
Oriental civilization, themselves most likeb to dc. 
into fields of \;isi industrial ent< rpi 
international impi n lam e, San I i 
interests will alsi i i nabli hi i i pari 

of an expanded ( loast trade \\ hen the population of the 
States of the Pacific Slope has grown as dense as the 
population of New York or Ohio. The Panama < anal 
which will, when dug, cut time and distance in thi logs 
of all craft sailing between foreign, Atlantic ami other 
domestic ports, i- to he one i if the forces created In 
national wealth to enrich this city. 

The day approaches when, in the memor) of men 
living, San Francisco Bay will present the mosl inter- 
esting and inexhaustible of marine views. Thousands 

fanciful picture. It is simpK a prediction m accord- 
ance with existing facts. 

What of the Philippines, and what of the millions 

who inhabit them'- Government is pledged to see that 
they do not fall backward in the scheme of civilization. 
I he) cannot stand still — no people or individual can do 
that. Hence, the islands must be successfully ex- 
ploited and the Filipino made into a useful citizen In 
being made a producer. Imagine an integral and natu- 
ral! v wealthy section of this < iovernment animated with 


ot craft will be anchored at its wharves and in its the highest American spirit and energy, owning a pop- 
streams, preparing to do the sea commerce of a stu- illation of 1ii.inin.unn ,, r more, closel) united to San 
pendous city. Ship-building in the days that are fleeing Francisco in the bonds of marine commerce. Such a 
to her. will he one of San Francisco', most profitable tho ugh1 alone is sufficient to create a lively idea of one 
and necessary industries. She will have dry docks and >i>vm . ,„- t|u . com ; ng grandeur of t]u . metropolis, ob- 

shipyards without number, and warehouses stretching . • , , ,■ , , , .. 

. '• ° tamed almost directh tnrorgn it- snipping. 

tor miles up and down the hay. It is by no means a 


the: house: of mitsui 

Tit Europe and England belong the Roth- 
schilds, I" England and the United States 
the Rockefellers, the Astors and the 
Vanderbilts, but Japan is possessed of 
the House of Mitsui. In Japan the fam- 
ily, and not the individual, is the unit 
under all social and economic conditions, 
and the I louse of Mitsui is the wealth- 
iest, most powerful and useful unit in 
the Japanese Empire. 
The Mitsui families originated from the historically 
famous Fujiwara clan, and is traced from Takashige 
Vlitsui, the feudal lord of Namadzuge Castle, who 
lived in the 15th century. In the middle of the 16th 
century Sokubei Takaloshi, his direct descendant, for- 
sook the trade of the sword for that of the merchant 
ami laid the foundation of the financial, industrial and 
commercial supremac) of the Mitsui families in Japan 
and the ( Irient. 

The Mitsui House is composed of eleven families. 
operating with their collective capital in their joint 
name and subject to an unlimited joint liability. The 
affairs of the House are governed now as tlicv have 
been since the days of it > founder, by the Mitsui Fam- 
ily Rules and the Board of the Mitsni Family Council. 
The interests of the House are enormous, varied and 
widespread, and are controlled bv four companies. 
Their enterprises embrace nearl\ ever) branch of busi- 
ness in the commercial and industrial worlds of Japan, 
and are listed as follows: Banking, Mining, Home 
Commerce, Foreign Trade, Shipping, Fisheries, 
Agency Business, Warehouse Business, Retail Trade. 
Iron and Engineering Works. The registered nominal 
capital, in 1902, of the four companies, amounted to 
eight and one-half million yen. paid up, anil their re- 
serve funds stood at over sixteen and one-half mil- 
linn yen. It I- believed this fend has increased over 
iift\ per cent, during; the past three years. The private 
Fortunes of the members of the House are princely. 

It would he interesting to know to just what ex- 
tent the example and position of the House of Mitsui 
have influenced the progressive movement regnant in 
Japan for more tnan thirty years past. It may be 
safe to conclude that the power and success of this 
remarkable aggregation of family wealth and the 
active utilization of concerted family effort has had a 
tremendous effect upon the social, political and finan- 
cial institutions of that country. 

Among the more important interests of the Mitsui 
House are its mines, especially its coal mines, and of 
these are the famous Miike mines, the largest in the 
East, located on the Island of Kiushiu. File conces- 
sion comprises an area of twenty-five square miles. 
In addition Mitsui & company own the Tagawa, Ida 
and Vamano coal mines and are the agents for some 
fifteen of the largest collieries in the Orient. The 
compan) has more than a score of agencies in Japan, 
and the following branches abroad: San Francisco, 
\mov, Bombay, Canton. Cheefoo, Chemulpo, Dalny. 
Hamburg. Hankow. Hongkong. London. Manila, New 
York. Port Arthur, Seoul. Shanghai. Singapore. Sou 
rabaya, Tientsin. Yingow and others. 

The headquarters of Mitsui & Co.. better known. 
perhaps, as the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha. are at Tokio. 

The Mitsni Bussan Kaisha (or Mitsui & Co.) are 
contractors for coal to the Imperial Japanese navy and 
arsenals, the Stale railway, principal railway com- 
panies and industrial works, home and foreign mail. 

and freight steamers. Moji, Wak.tnial-.u. KanatSU, 

Nagasaki and Kuchinotsu are 'In chief shipping points 
of Mitsni & Co.'s coal products. To transport the out- 
put of the mini"- a large licit of steamers is owned 

and chartered by the company. The total tonnage . 

the Msscls owned b) the linn and know n as the M. I'.. 
Ix.'s licet, exceeds 20,000 tons, and is composed of 
seven modern colliers, sailing largely to Eastern ports. 
During the year 1902 the Mitsni Bussan Kaisha ship- 
ped from tin' ports of Moji. Kanatsu, Nagasaki and 
Kuchinotsu a total of 1,911,952 tons; m 1903, a total 
i'i 2,338,540 tons, and in L904, a total of -.'..Mr.'.:;:,!. 
The latter statement includes a total shipment from 

Wakamatsu of 87,381 tons. Kuchinotsku, the prin- 
cipal exporting point and coaling station of Miike 
coal in Japan, is situated on thi southern extremit) of 
Shimabara Peninsula, in Kiushiu Island, at the en- 
trance of the Shimabara Gulf, and is in latitude 32 . 
36', 04" North, and longitude 130 . II . 34" East. The 

harbor is a mile in length and half a mile in breadth, 

is sheltered and possesses g 1 "holding ground" for 

anchorage. The company has erected tit this port for 
storage purposes durable sheds with a storage capacit) 
of 30,000 tons. The Miike coal concession bis some 
31 miles from Kuchinotsku. and the output is trans- 
ported to that and other stations by a licet of 300 
schooner-rigged barges. 

The five mines of the Miike concession work some 
3,000 operatives and have a daily output of 2,500 tons 
The seams have been worked since the middle oi the 
llth century, first b\ private persons, latterl) b> the 
government, .and since bj Mitsni & Co. The 
coal is not alone adequate!) adapted to fuel purposes, 
but is entirely satisfactory as forge- coal. The coke 
derived from the Miike coals is of a superior quality. 
equal to the best English coke. Rigid analysis and ex- 
periment several years ago demonstrated the gas-pro- 
ducing power of the coal, and the gas companies of 
China and Japan quickly utilized it. Its reputation 
soon spread to the West, and now San Francisco and 
other cities on the coast arc large consumers of the 
product for gas producing purposes. 

Mr. Mikmoto presented the editor of this publica- 
tion with some beautifully painted and illustrated books 
and pamphlets reciting the history of the House of 
Mitsui and graphically picturing scenes in the Miike 
and other coal fields of Mitsui &• Co. One is thus 
comprehensively provided with a medium through 
which can be formed a correct knowledge of the ex- 
tent of the mining operations of the Mitsui Bussan 
Kusha. of the costh character of its buildings and of 
the modern machiner) and methods employed in ex- 
tracting fuel from the depths of Kiushiu Island. These 
intensely practical documents are a revelation to the 
reader who has not made a close and general study of 
Japan's acquired and natural resources. The later-day 
history of the House of Mitsui will equal in its record 
of achievement on the most approved lines of modern 
progress and financial success the history of any simi- 
lar existent combination of family and allied interests. 
It is a marvelous storv of an unbroken succession of 
marvelously gifted groups of men united not only in 
purpose, but in ties of family blood. 

In San Francisco Mr. Mikmoto has the honor to 
represent this distinguished and opulent financial in- 
stitution, a position many of his countrymen would 
doubtless desire to occupy. 

^JJ J A 


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